Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) from SSc patients target specific endothelial antigens including ICAM-1, and cause pro-inflammatory activation of human endothelial cells, suggesting that they are not only a marker of disease but that they contribute to its progression. Pub Med. Vascul Pharmacol, 2013 May 16.S1537-1891(13)00071-2. (Also see: Antibodies in Systemic Scleroderma and Causes of Scleroderma: Endothelin)
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