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What is Morphea?

Author: Shelley Ensz. Scleroderma is highly variable. See Types of Scleroderma. Read Disclaimer
Video Overview
Types of Morphea
Juvenile Scleroderma
Associated Conditions
Causes of Morphea
Complications of Morphea
Diagnosis
Photos
Research Registry
Treatments
Patient and Caregiver Stories
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Overview

Morphea Scleroderma on LegThe most important thing to know about morphea scleroderma is that it is entirely different from systemic scleroderma — and it is never fatal.

Overview of Morphea Video
Presented by Amanda Thorpe

Morphea is a type of localised scleroderma. It affects the skin and sometimes underlying muscles and joints, which can cause disability, but it is not life threatening.

Morphea is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and can be confirmed with a skin biopsy. It is most commonly found on the trunk but it can occur anywhere on the body.

It's most common form is a plaque-type that affects only skin and that often begins fading 3 to 5 years after onset, even without treatment. However the deeper, rapidly spreading forms of morphea require early diagnosis and, if possible, treatment by a scleroderma expert.

Currently, UVA1 phototherapy is widely recommended as a first-line treatment for morphea, and it is also used for treating well-established morphea. (Also see: Morphea Treatments)

Morphea usually begins as patches of yellowish or ivory-colored rigid, dry skin. These then become hard, slightly depressed, oval-shaped plaques which usually have a whitish or yellowish center surrounded by a pinkish or purplish halo.

Morphea is most commonly found on the trunk, but it can occur anywhere on the body. About 75% of the time it affects only the skin or underlying muscles and joints.

Update on morphea: part I. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathogenesis. The underlying pathogenesis of morphea is incompletely understood at this time, but ultimately results in an imbalance of collagen production and destruction. Fett N. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Feb;64(2):217-28. (Also see: Morphea)

Types of Morphea

The most common type of morphea is a simple plaque-type, which affects only the skin and not the underlying tissues. It typically begins fading within about 3-5 years after onset, even without any treatment at all. Deeper, fast-spreading, cosmetically apparent, or different forms of morphea require early diagnosis and, preferably, treatment by a scleroderma expert. The rare types of morphea include:
Bullous Morphea
Deep Morphea
Dermatitis Artefacta
Generalized Morphea
Guttate Morphea
Keloid Morphea
Morpheaform or Basal Cell
Morphea Profunda (Subcutaneous)
Pansclerotic Morphea
Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma, is a disorder characterized by thickening and induration of the skin and subcutaneous tissue due to excessive collagen deposition. Morphea subtypes are classified according to their clinical presentation and depth of tissue involvement; they include plaque-type, generalized, linear, and deep varieties. eMedicine.
Morphea scleroderma and its variants are also known as atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini, bullous morphea, circumscribed scleroderma, deep morphea, disabling pansclerotic morphea, en coup de sabre, eosinophilic fasciitis, generalized morphea, guttate morphea, keloid, keloidal, or keloid-like morphea, linear morphea, localized scleroderma, morphea profunda, nodular morphea, pansclerotic morphea, plaque-type morphea, progressive hemifacial atrophy, progressive facial atrophy, Parry Rombergs, Shulman's syndrome, and subcutaneous morphea.

Juvenile Scleroderma

Juvenile Scleroderma. When any form of scleroderma begins during childhood (including morphea) it is also called childhood or juvenile scleroderma. (Also see: Types of Scleroderma)
What is Juvenile Scleroderma?
Juvenile Scleroderma Books
Juvenile Scleroderma Experts
Juvenile Scleroderma Research
Prognosis
Coping with a Child's Illness
Patient and Caregiver Stories

Associated Conditions

Overview of Associated Conditions
Additional Symptoms
Autoimmune Conditions
Cancer: T-Cell Lymphoma
Infections
Melanonychia
Skin Conditions
Systemic Scleroderma

Causes of Morphea

Autoimmunity
Cancer, Lymphoma
Genetics
Infections
Borrelia Burgorferi
HTLV-1 Infection
Toxoplasma Gondii
Medications
Valproic Acid
Radiation
Solvents, Organic Solvents
Vaccinations

Complications of Morphea

Linear morphea presenting as acquired unilateral edema. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007 Mar-Apr;24(2):147-50. (Also see: Edema)
Plaque-type scleroderma associated with linear and oesophageal features and facial and extra-facial hemiatrophy. PubMed. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Jan;134(1):68-71. (Also see: Linear Scleroderma)
Morphea of the breast. Two case reports. PubMed. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59(10):1114-7.

Diagnosis of Morphea

Diagnosis of Morphea.Morphea is usually diagnosed by clinical examination. The diagnosis is sometimes confirmed with blood tests, skin biopsies, or other methods. ISN.
Morphea is a Clinical Diagnosis
Photos of Morphea
Antibodies/Blood Tests
Morphea Skin Biopsy
Ultrasound

Photos of Morphea

ISN Photo Repository: Morphea Photos. ISN.

Research Registries

First U.S. Morphea Registry and DNA Repository for both Adults and Children Established. Dermatologists at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center are establishing a DNA repository aimed at people with morphea. They will collect information about other health conditions present, collect information about family history, and collect blood and skin samples to further define the genes associated with morphea and the genetic faces of morphea. Southwestern Medical Center. 05/31/07.

Treatments for Morphea

Overview
Scleroderma Experts
Apligraf for Bullous Ulcers
Alternative Therapies
Bosentan (Tracleer)
Cosmetics
Endermology or LPG
Imiquimod Cream
Laser
Methotrexate and Glucocorticoids
Phototherapy, UVA, PUVA
Tacrolimus Cream

English Morphea Patient and Caregiver Stories

(English) Morphea Patient and Caregiver Stories (Main Listing). ISN.

Italian Morphea Patient and Caregiver Stories

(Italiano) Morphea Storia. ISN.

Spanish Morphea Patient and Caregiver Stories

(Español/Spanish) Morfea Historia. ISN.
 
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