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Glucocorticoids, Steroids (Prednisone) Warnings for Scleroderma

Medications for Scleroderma, Arthritis, Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases
This page was written by Janey Willis. See Disclaimer.
Overview
Use with Autoimmune Diseases
General Side Effects
Weight Gain
Osteoporosis
Renal Crisis
Additional Risks

Overview of Glucocorticoids, Steroids

Corticosteroids
strongly increase
the short-term risk of developing
scleroderma renal crisis!

Glucocorticoids are any of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisone, that are produced by the adrenal cortex and are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.

Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory properties. They can be prescribed to dampen or stop the chronic inflammatory chain of events. Depending on the particular glucocorticoid that is used, inflammation can be affected at different points in the inflammatory pathway.

Glucocorticoids and steroids should never be stopped suddenly. Drug dosage must be tapered over time in order to allow the adrenal cortex to start producing the hormones that have been replaced by the drug. Always follow your doctor's tapering schedule when coming off these drugs.

Corticosteroids (such as prednisone) strongly increase the short-term risk of developing scleroderma renal crisis (kidney failure). It also causes a 70 percent increased risk of developing pneumonia.

It is crucial to avoid corticosteroids in patients with systemic scleroderma. (Also see: What is Scleroderma?, Medical Overview, and Medications for Scleroderma, Arthritis, Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases)

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Use of Glucocorticoid, Steroids (Prednisone) with Autoimmune Diseases

Glucocorticoids and irreversible damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Prednisone causes damage in SLE, but doses less than 7.5 mg/day and methylprednisolone pulses are not associated with damage accrual. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2014 Mar 27. (Also see: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
Scleroderma Overlap Syndrome. The definition of scleroderma overlap syndrome is important, especially in patients who need high dose corticosteroids for complications of a connective tissue disease (CTD). The use of novel biological therapies may be advocated in these patients to avoid the hazardous influences of high-dose steroids, especially renal crisis. Alexandra Balbir-Gurman MD, (PubMed) Isr Med Assoc J. 2011 Jan;13(1):14-20. (Also see: Scleroderma Overlap)
High frequency of corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy in patients with systemic sclerosis despite limited evidence for efficacy. Despite limited evidence for the effectiveness of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents in systemic sclerosis, these potentially harmful drugs are frequently prescribed to patients with all forms of systemic sclerosis. N. Hunzelmann Arthritis Research & Therapy, 11:R30. 4 March 2009. (Also see: Immunosuppressants)

General Side Effects of Glucocorticoid, Steroids (Prednisone)

Prednisone Side Effects include hirsutism (excessive body hair), weight gain, undesirable redistribution of body fat (buffalo hump and fat pads), glucose intolerance, hypertension, increased susceptibility to infection, bone thinning, easy bruising, mood swings, insomnia, avascular necrosis of bone, abdominal striae (stretch marks), cataracts, and acne. The Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center.

Weight Gain with Prednisone

Prednisone Weight Gain. Weight gain is usually the most dreaded side–effects of steroid use, incurred to some degree by nearly all patients who take them. In addition to causing weight gain, prednisone leads to a redistribution of body fat to places that are undesirable, particularly the face, back of the neck, and abdomen. The John Hopkins Vasculitis Center.
Will the weight I gained while taking prednisone ever go away? Prednisone causes the body to retain sodium (salt) and lose potassium. This combination can result in fluid retention, weight gain, and bloating. Measures that can be used to avoid fluid retention in the first place are eating a reduced sodium diet and increasing potassium intake through potassium-rich foods (such as bananas, cantaloupe, grapefruit, and lima beans). About.com.

Osteoporosis and Glucocorticoid, Steroids (Prednisone)

Increased risk of osteoporotic fractures in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc): a nationwide population-based study. SSc patients had a high increased risk of vertebral and hip fractures, especially those who were female, older, or used a high dose of corticosteroid (> 7.5 mg) or experienced bowel dysmotility. PubMed, Ann Rheum Dis, 2014 Feb 14. (Also see: Osteoporosis in Scleroderma)
Prevention of cortisone-induced osteoporosis: who, when and what? We advocate the use of a specific treatment for osteoporosis in all cases when the duration of corticosteroid therapy is not strictly limited and shorter than 3 months. Aubry-Rozier B. (PubMed) Rev Med Suisse. 2010 Feb 10;6(235):307-13. (Also see: Osteoporosis)

Renal Crisis and Glucocorticoid, Steroids (Prednisone)

Corticosteroids
strongly increase
the short-term risk of developing
scleroderma renal crisis!
Scleroderma Renal Crisis. Scleroderma renal crisis is characterized by malignant hypertension, hyperreninemia, azotemia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and renal failure. Steroid use (>15 mg prednisolone/day) is considered a risk factor for SRC. The other risk factors associated with renal crisis include, cyclosporin therapy, presence of anti-RNA-polymerase antibody, diffuse skin disease, rapidly progressive skin disease, and anemia. Hamid R. Hajmomenian, M.D. UCLA Department of Medicine.
Scleroderma renal crisis precipitated by steroid treatment in systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma overlap syndrome. There was response to treatment but 15 days later the course of the disease was complicated by scleroderma renal crisis evidenced by elevated blood pressure, deteriorating kidney function, hemolysis and thrombocytopenia. Arab J Nephrol Transplant. 2012 Sep;5(3):153-7.
Corticosteroids and the risk of scleroderma renal crisis: a systematic review. Great caution must continue to be exerted when initiating such therapy, especially in high doses and in the early diffuse subset of SSc patients. Trang G. Rheumatol Int. 2010 Dec 4. (Also see: Scleroderma Renal Crisis)

Additional Risks with Glucocorticoid, Steroids (Prednisone)

Steroid Use in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Risk of Myocardial Infarction. Beyond the usual gamut of adverse effects generally linked with use of glucocorticosteroids (GCs), a recent study found these agents to be associated with nearly a 70% increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pharmacy Times. 04/13/2013.
Clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis in systemic sclerosis: consequences of previous corticosteroid treatment. Our study confirms an increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in SSc patients and demonstrates a hitherto unknown association with corticosteroid cumulative dosage. S. Vettori. Scand J Rheumatol. (Also see: Atherosclerosis)
 
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