Janey WillisHello, I am Janey Willis, ISN Guide to Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease, and Type 2 Diabetes is caused by risk factors such as lifestyle, ethnicity, age, and pregnancy. The majority of diabetics have Type 2. See Disclaimer.

Scleroderma and Diabetes
Personal Stories
Media Stories


Diabetes Overview KaleidoscopeType 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease that prevents the the pancreas from producing insulin. (Also see Autoimmune Diseases)

Insulin is the hormone that converts blood sugar (glucose) into energy. After eating, blood sugar levels increase, causing the pancreas to produce insulin.

People with Type 1 Diabetes are not able to produce enough insulin, so their body's ability to convert glucose to energy is impaired. Treatment options include appropriate diet and exercise, pancreas transplants, medications, and insulin shots. (Also see Autoimmune Diseases)

Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder. People with Type 2 produce insulin but may produce too little of it or the body is unable to effectively use it (insulin resistance). The majority of people with diabetes are Type 2.

Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Mall

Autoimmune Aspects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) — A Mini–Review. The review focuses on autoimmune involvement in T2DM, with an emphasis on latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult, the humoral immune response and specifically the role of B and T cells as links between inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. Gerontology 2014;60:189-196. (Also see B Cells and T Cells)


Overview of Diabetes Symptoms
Erectile Dysfunction
Eye Complications
Heart Disease
Nerve Damage
Pancreas Disease and Diabetes
Pulmonary Complications
Renal Involvement
Skeletal Complications
Skin Complications
Thyroid Complications


Overview of Causes of Diabetes
Environmental Factors
Physiological Factors


Glucose Tests
Disease Correlations

Scleroderma and Diabetes

Scleroderma and Diabetes
Scleredema Adultorum Buschke


Type 1
Alternative Therapies
Diabetes and Hormones
Lifestyle Changes for Type 2 Diabetes


Overview of Treatments
Treatments for Complications
Managing Diabetes
Pancreas and Islet Transplants
Stem Cell Transplant


Clinical Trials for Diabetes Research on Diabetes


Relationships of diabetes-specific emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and overall well-being with HbA1c in adult persons with type 1 diabetes. To stimulate adequate care strategies, health personnel should acknowledge depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress as different conditions in clinical consultations. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, July 12 2014.

Support for Diabetes. Resources for diabetes support groups, organizations, and publications. ISN.

Personal Stories

Personal Stories of Diabetics. These stories are from people who have Type 1 Diabetes, or who have either type of diabetes along with other autoimmune diseases.

Aurora: Linear Scleroderma I am always very tired, and I suffer from pain that will not go away no matter what I do…

Beverly: CREST Scleroderma I was overtired and needed naps in the afternoon, pain was slowly getting the better of me and I finally went to the doctor…

More Personal Stories from Persons with Diabetes

Media Stories

Media Stories of Diabetes. ISN.

Go to Symptoms of Diabetes
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