Multiple Sclerosis

Author: Shelley Ensz. Scleroderma is highly variable. See Types of Scleroderma. Read Disclaimer
Overview of Multiple Sclerosis
Symptoms of MS
Overlaps with MS
MS and Glandular Fever
MS and Scleroderma
Causes of MS
Treatments and Clinical Trials
MS Research
Personal Stories About MS
Support Organizations
MS Media Stories


Muliple Sclerosis KaleidoscopeMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, causing intermittent or chronic symptoms. It may cause muscle pain, weakness and tremors; dizziness, depression, parasthesias and fatigue; bladder and bowel dysfunction; and speech or vision disturbances.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). PubMed, Health.


Protective personality traits: High openness and low neuroticism linked to better memory in multiple sclerosis (MS). Personality may inform predictive models of memory impairment in MS. PubMed, Mult Scler, 2017 Jan 1:1352458516685417.

Characterizing the phenotype of multiple sclerosis (MS)–associated depression in comparison with idiopathic major depression. The clinical phenotype of “idiopathic” major depressive disorder and MS–associated depression appears similar when adequately examined. PubMed, Mult Scler, 01/08/2016. (Also see Depression)

Increased risk of ischaemic stroke among patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is declared to be associated with an increased risk in developing stroke, which requires closer attention to this group of patients for stroke prevention, especially in the younger population. PubMed, Eur J Neurol, 11/29/2014.

Possible Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. Symptoms may include weakness, numbness, pain, disturbances of speech or vision, parasthesias, ataxia, tremor, dizziness, bladder or bowel dysfunction, fatigue, cognitive problems and depression. WebMD.


Validation of a self-report comorbidity questionnaire for multiple sclerosis (MS). Self-report is a valid way to capture comorbidities affecting MS patients. Horton M. (PubMed) Neuroepidemiology, 2010 Aug;35(2):83-90.

Multiple Sclerosis and Glandular Fever

Evidence accumulates for the role of Epstein-Barr virus in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In the more thorough studies where two independent methods had been used, all adults with MS showed evidence of EBV infection. These results strongly support a role for EBV in the development of MS. MS Research Australia. 07/09/12.

Multiple Sclerosis and Scleroderma

Multiple sclerosis (MS) sometimes occurs along with other autoimmune diseases, but seems to be rare in association with systemic scleroderma. Very few cases have been identified in medical journals.

Lisa W: Diffuse Scleroderma, CREST and Multiple Sclerosis I was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). That also took over a year to diagnose. My doctors tell me that I am one out of millions with this case of bad luck…


Missing link between brain and immune system found. A team of researchers has discovered the “missing” link between the brain and the immune system that may better treat neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis in the near future. NHS Choices, 06/08/2015.

Gender differences in multiple sclerosis (MS): induction of estrogen signaling in male and progesterone signaling in female lesions. The different gender–specific responses in steroid synthesis and signaling in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients may represent contributing factors to gender differences in the prevalence and course of MS. PubMed, J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 2014 Feb;73(2):123-35.


Classification, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The clinical history, examination, and MRI should be most consistent with multiple sclerosis, including the presence of features typical for the disease. PubMed, Current Opinion in Neurology, 06/06/2015.

Treatments and Clinical Trials

How a daily statin tablet could slow march of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Statins have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects on the nervous system and previous research using simvastatin in people with early-stage MS found reductions in brain lesions, suggesting the statin was affecting the disease process. Mail Online, 03/19/2014. (Also see Statins)

T cell repertoire (TCR) following autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis. TCR characterization during immunomodulatory treatment is both feasible and informative, and may enable monitoring of pathogenic or protective T cell clones following HSCT and cellular therapies. PubMed, J Clin Invest, 2014 Feb 17. (Also see Stem Cell Transplantation)

New approach could treat MS, other autoimmune diseases. Researchers trying to find a way to treat multiple sclerosis think they've come up with an approach that could not only help patients with MS, but those with a range of so-called autoimmune diseases, from type-1 diabetes to psoriasis, and perhaps even food allergies. NBC News, 11/18/12.

Scientists claim artificial sunshine may be key to treating Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The study shows that UV-B light, which mimics sunshine, can have a striking effect on the immune system of patients. Scotland News. 07/17/12. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma: Vitamin D Deficiency)


Neuropsychological correlates of multiple sclerosis (MS) across the lifespan. Understanding how MS manifests across the lifespan has important implications for tailoring assessment and treatment for individuals with MS as they transition from childhood to adulthood, and later life. PubMed, Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 07/15/2015.

Assessment of visual and auditory evoked potentials (VEP) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without fatigue. Significant, usually asymmetrical VEP and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) abnormalities were found in fatigued MS patients, with no relationships to disease-related variables. EP may be considered an electrophysiological marker of fatigue in MS patients. PubMed, Neurol Sci, 2014 Sep 21.

Managing treatment fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on long-term therapy: the role of multiple sclerosis nurses. Patients with MS on long-term therapy may suffer from treatment fatigue and poor adherence. MS nurses are ideally situated to help patients cope with any factors that may limit adherence. PubMed, Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014 Aug 19;8:1093-9. (Also see Fatigue)

High vitamin D may prevent multiple sclerosis. A study published recently in Neurology suggests that exposure to the sun or taking vitamin D supplements may help reduce risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). FoodConsumer, 11/01/12.

Personal Stories About Multiple Sclerosis or Difficult Diagnosis

Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, lupus and scleroderma can be very difficult to properly diagnose, particularly in the early stages of illness. Many of these stories regard onset of scleroderma during which time MS was considered as a possible diagnosis. (Also see Difficult Diagnosis)

Boo: CREST Scleroderma Finally in 1994, it was labeled as CREST syndrome, which is a form of systemic scleroderma…

Beverly: CREST Scleroderma I was overtired and needed naps in the afternoon, pain was slowly getting the better of me and I finally went to the doctor…

Carla: CREST Syndrome and Fibromyalgia When I read some of these stories, they scare the devil out of me. Is this really that bad?…

Cindy Fuchs-Morrissey: Mother of a Progressive Systemic Sclerosis Child Hilary has an aggressive form of scleroderma with swallowing problems, bowel problems, fatigue, acral bone dysplasia of the hands and feet…

Debbie: CREST Here's a copy of a letter I sent to my rheumatologist…

Kathi: Scleroderma/Lupus I am forty-three years old and have not been feeling well for ten years…

Krisha S: Multiple Autoimmune Condition I have multiple sclerosis (MS), fibromyalgia, and Stiff Person Syndrome…

Lisa W: Diffuse Scleroderma, CREST and Multiple Sclerosis I was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). That also took over a year to diagnose. My doctors tell me that I am one out of millions with this case of bad luck…

McKenzie: Scleroderma with CREST I felt numbness crept down both my legs. I said, "I can't feel my legs!" and sat down on the floor…

Nan: Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Fibromyalgia Finally after several years of struggle, one wonderful doctor at OSU got gutsy and gave me the MCTD diagnosis…


(U.S.) National Multiple Sclerosis Society The mission of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society is to end the devastating effects of MS. National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

Media Stories

Stress Management May Prevent Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Brain Lesions. Patients with multiple sclerosis who attended stress management therapy sessions for six months had fewer new brain lesions from disease flare-ups and slower disease progression during their treatment. WebMD. 07/11/12.

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