Thyroid Diseases

With Scleroderma
With Other Diseases
Graves' Disease
Personal Stories

Overview of Thyroid Diseases

Thyroid KaleidoscopeIt is common for people to develop thyroid diseases, such as hyperthyroidism (hyper means "too much") and hypothyroidism (hypo means "too little.) The two main types of autoimmune thyroid disease fall into hyperthyroidism (Grave's disease), and hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis).

Often thyroid disease occurs by itself. Occasionally it is also associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, systemic scleroderma, and vitiligo, just to name a few. (Also see Autoimmune Diseases)

Thyroid Disease. Dermatological manifestations as a sign of thyroid disturbances occur either in thyreotoxic states or in the evolution of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid that is in apparent euthyroidism, or in overt hypothyroidism. (Springerlink) Alfredo Rebora. Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Skin Diseases in Endocrine, Metabolic, Nutritional and Deposition Disease, 2010. Part 1, Pages 27-33.

What is Hypothyroidism? Early and late symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. Armour Thyroid.

Cutting Edge: The etiology (cause) of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). For the first time, we are beginning to unravel these mechanisms at the molecular level. Eschler D.C. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, 2011 Jan 14. (PubMed)

Thyroid Disease and Scleroderma

It is common for people with systemic scleroderma to also have other health problems, and thyroid disease can often be associated with it.

However, thyroid disease is very common in the general population, whereas systemic scleroderma is very rare, and thyroid disease is not considered to be a symptom of any type of scleroderma.

Incidence of Thyroid Disorders in Systemic Sclerosis: Results from a Longitudinal Follow-Up. The study shows a high incidence of new cases of hypothyroidism and thyroid dysfunction in female sclerodermic patients who are at high risk (a borderline high, even if in the normal range) who should have periodic thyroid function follow-up. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, June 18, 2013.

Thyroid Disease in Correlation with Other Diseases

Associated autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for developing other autoimmune diseases, most commonly autoimmune thyroiditis and celiac disease. PubMed, Autoimmun Rev, 2015 Sep;14(9):781-97. (Also see Diagnosis of Diabetes and Celiac Disease)

Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 2014 Jan 18. (Also see Fibromyalgia)

Type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmune diseases: screening, diagnostic principles and management. In this clinical review we present current opinions in terms of diagnosis, management and screening in the most common type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmune diseases. PubMed, Med Wieku Rozwoj, 2012 Jan-Mar;16(1):23-34.(Also see Diagnosis of Diabetes)

Increased Risk of Coeliac Disease in Patients with Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH). In CH patients, a statistically significant difference was found in the familial occurrence of autoimmune diseases compared to controls. Stagi S. (BioPortfolio) Horm Res Paediatr, 2011 Jul 15. (Also see Celiac Disease)

Graves' Disease or Hyperthyroidism

Grave's Disease. Graves' disease is the most common form of hyperthyroidism, occurring when your immune system mistakenly attacks your thyroid gland and causes it to overproduce the hormone thyroxine. Mayo Clinic.

Other Conditions

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis or Hypothyroidism

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland, causing hypothyroidism (a depletion of thyroid hormone.) It is diagnosed by blood tests for thyroid antibodies, and treated with thyroid replacement medications. ISN.

Overview of Hashimoto's
Symptoms of Hashitmoto's
Causes of Hashimoto's
Diagnosis of Hashimoto's
Treatments of Hashimoto's
Cancer and Hashimoto's
Central Nervous System and Dementia with Hashimoto's
Sleep Apnea and Hashimoto's
Thyroid Support

Thyroid Research Articles

Dietary Considerations
(Lungs) Pulmonary
Musculoskeletal Involvement
Pregnancy and Postpartum Thyroiditis
Stress and Thyroid Autoimmunity


Autoimmune Thyroiditis (AIT) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Is There Really an Association? Previous studies suggest an association between AIT, an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and RA, a systemic autoimmune disorder. Our study suggests that, at least in some populations, this association does not occur, or it is not strong enough-from the epidemiologic point of view-to justify the routine thyroid antibodies and thyrotropin tests in all RA patients. F.T. Goncalves. Endocrinologist. January/February 2009. (Also see Rheumatoid Arthritis)

Prevalence and Functional Significance of Antipituitary Antibodies (APA) in Patients with Autoimmune and Non-Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. APA are frequently present in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Patients should be tested for APA because positive tests are associated with growth-hormone deficiency. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No. 6 2176-2181.


Value of the left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) in diagnosing autoimmune thyroid disease. The left inferior thyroid artery PSV was the most accurate sonographic parameter for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease. PubMed, 2013 Nov;32(11):1969-78. J Ultrasound Med.

Dietary Considerations

Iodine and thyroid autoimmunity. Epidemiological data from countries with sufficient or high nutritional iodine intake clearly show that in comparison to countries with iodine deficiency there is an increase in the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease. PubMed, Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich. 2004 May;98 Suppl 5:73-6.


Thyroid-intestinal motility interactions summary. Thyroid diseases may be related to gastrointestinal motility symptoms. Such symptoms can vary in degree and, sometimes, are the only clue of a thyroid disease or, at least, the first. PubMed, Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2004 Dec;50(4):305-15. (Also see Gastrointestinal Involvement)


Comorbidities common in bipolar disorder, may have genetic link. Medical comorbidities common in people with bipolar, including heart disease, cancer, endocrine disorders and autoimmune disorders, lead to complications, overall poor health and a decreased life expectancy. Researchers observed an increased prevalence of bipolar disorder among twins and parents and children with autoimmune thyroiditis. These findings indicate a genetic risk factor for the disease. EurekAlert! 06/08/07.

Interferon-induced Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction associated with type I interferon therapy. Type I interferons are currently used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, multiple sclerosis and several hematological and solid tumors. Side effects are not uncommon, and include multiple alterations in thyroid function, some of which are unrelated to autoimmunity. PubMed, Clin Exp Med. 2004 Apr;3(4):199-210.

Lungs (Pulmonary)

Airway function and markers of airway inflammation in patients with treated hypothyroidism. Patients with treated hypothyroidism report more respiratory symptoms and have objective evidence of airway dysfunction and inflammation. PubMed, Thorax. 2005 Mar;60(3):249-53.

Musculoskeletal Involvement

Myositis associated with the decline of thyroid hormone levels in thyrotoxicosis: a syndrome? Myositis after correction of thyrotoxicosis may constitute a syndrome that should be assessed for in hyperthyroid patients complaining of myalgias after starting treatment. Shaheen D. (PubMed) Thyroid. 2009 Dec;19(12):1413-7.

Pregnancy and Postpartum Thyroiditis (PPT)

Maternal Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and the Fetal Immune System. The aim of this study was to identify immunological changes in children born to mothers with thyroid autoimmunity that may be related to in utero exposure to autoantibodies. Svensson J. (PubMed) Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes, 2011 Jun 10.

Newborn of mothers affected by autoimmune thyroiditis: the importance of thyroid function monitoring in the first months of life. Transient mild elevation of serum TSH above the normal reference value for age is frequently observed in the first month of life in infants born from mother affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Persistent hyperthyrotropinemia requiring replacement therapy is observed in 2.2% of these neonates. R. Rovelli. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. March 10 2010.

Radiotherapy-induced Thyroid Disorders

Radiotherapy-induced thyroid disorders. Despite their specific functional consequences, radiotherapy-induced thyroid abnormalities remain under-estimated and underreported. PubMed, Cancer Treat Rev. 2004 Jun;30(4):369-84.

Stress and Thyroid Autoimmunity

Stress and thyroid autoimmunity. Stress affects the immune system either directly or indirectly through the nervous and endocrine systems. These immune modulations may contribute to the development of autoimmunity as well as the susceptibility to autoimmune disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Stress can be one of the environmental factors for thyroid autoimmunity. PubMed, Thyroid. 2004 Dec;14(12):1047-55. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma: Stress)

Thyroid Education and Support

Five Reasons You Can't Get Your Thyroid Problem Diagnosed. Many thyroid patients write to ask why it can be so incredibly hard to get diagnosed. A few things to think about. 08/23/07.

How Armour® Thyroid Differs From Synthetic Thyroid Hormone Replacements. Armour Thyroid.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia. ISN.

Go to Graves' Disease

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