Thyroid Diseases

With Scleroderma
With Other Diseases
Graves' Disease
Personal Stories

Overview of Thyroid Diseases

Thyroid KaleidoscopeIt is common for people to develop thyroid diseases, such as hyperthyroidism (hyper means "too much") and hypothyroidism (hypo means "too little.) The two main types of autoimmune thyroid disease fall into hyperthyroidism (Grave's disease), and hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis).

Often thyroid disease occurs by itself. Occasionally it is also associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, systemic scleroderma, and vitiligo, just to name a few. (Also see Autoimmune Diseases)

Thyroid Disease. Dermatological manifestations as a sign of thyroid disturbances occur either in thyreotoxic states or in the evolution of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid that is in apparent euthyroidism, or in overt hypothyroidism. (Springerlink) Alfredo Rebora. Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Skin Diseases in Endocrine, Metabolic, Nutritional and Deposition Disease, [2010].

What is Hypothyroidism? Early and late symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. Armour Thyroid.

Mechanisms of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases (AITD): From Genetics to Epigenetics. Epigenetic modulation is emerging as a major mechanism by which environmental factors interact with AITD susceptibility genes. PubMed, Annu Rev Pathol, 2014;9:147-56.

Thyroid Disease and Scleroderma

It is common for people with systemic scleroderma to also have other health problems, and thyroid disease can often be associated with it.

However, thyroid disease is very common in the general population, whereas systemic scleroderma is very rare, and thyroid disease is not considered to be a symptom of any type of scleroderma.

Increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer (TC) in systemic sclerosis associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with SSc have an increased risk of malignancy compared with the general population and these data suggest a high prevalence of papillary TC, in particular in the presence of thyroid autoimmunity. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 09/30/2015. (Also see Cancer and Scleroderma)

Incidence of Thyroid Disorders in Systemic Sclerosis: Results from a Longitudinal Follow-Up. The study shows a high incidence of new cases of hypothyroidism and thyroid dysfunction in female sclerodermic patients who are at high risk (a borderline high, even if in the normal range) who should have periodic thyroid function follow-up. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, June 18, 2013.

Thyroid Disease in Correlation with Other Diseases

Associated autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for developing other autoimmune diseases, most commonly autoimmune thyroiditis and celiac disease. PubMed, Autoimmun Rev, 2015 Sep;14(9):781-97. (Also see Diagnosis of Diabetes and Celiac Disease)

Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 2014 Jan 18. (Also see Fibromyalgia)

Type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmune diseases: screening, diagnostic principles and management. In this clinical review we present current opinions in terms of diagnosis, management and screening in the most common type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmune diseases. PubMed, Med Wieku Rozwoj, 2012 Jan-Mar;16(1):23-34.(Also see Diagnosis of Diabetes)

Graves' Disease or Hyperthyroidism

Grave's Disease. Graves' disease is the most common form of hyperthyroidism, occurring when your immune system mistakenly attacks your thyroid gland and causes it to overproduce the hormone thyroxine. Mayo Clinic.

Other Conditions

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis or Hypothyroidism

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland, causing hypothyroidism (a depletion of thyroid hormone.) It is diagnosed by blood tests for thyroid antibodies, and treated with thyroid replacement medications. ISN.

Overview of Hashimoto's
Symptoms of Hashitmoto's
Causes of Hashimoto's
Diagnosis of Hashimoto's
Treatments of Hashimoto's
Cancer and Hashimoto's
Central Nervous System and Dementia with Hashimoto's
Sleep Apnea and Hashimoto's
Thyroid Support

Thyroid Research Articles

Dietary Considerations
(Lungs) Pulmonary
Musculoskeletal Involvement
Pregnancy and Postpartum Thyroiditis
Stress and Thyroid Autoimmunity


Hypothyroidism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its relation to disease activity. Hypothyroidism was the most common thyroid disorder associated with RA, present in 24%, with a significant association with RA disease activity parameters. Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, 05/14/2014. (Also see Rheumatoid Arthritis in Overlap)

Prevalence and Functional Significance of Antipituitary Antibodies (APA) in Patients with Autoimmune and Non-Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. APA are frequently present in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Patients should be tested for APA because positive tests are associated with growth-hormone deficiency. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No. 6 2176-2181.


Value of the left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) in diagnosing autoimmune thyroid disease. The left inferior thyroid artery PSV was the most accurate sonographic parameter for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease. PubMed, 2013 Nov;32(11):1969-78. J Ultrasound Med.

Dietary Considerations

Iodine excess as an environmental risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding excess iodide as an environmental toxicant and relate it to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. PubMed, Int J Mol Sci, 2014 Jul 21;15(7):12895-912.


Thyroid disorders and gastrointestinal and liver dysfunction: A state of the art review. In this review, we discuss disorders of the thyroid-gut axis and identify the evidence base behind the management of such disorders. PubMed, Eur J Intern Med, 2015 Oct;26(8):563-71. (Also see Gastrointestinal Involvement and Liver Involvement)


Congenital hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism can also occur as part of syndromes that affect other organs and tissues in the body. Genetics Home Reference, September 2015.

Interferon-induced Thyroid Disorders

Frequency of Thyroid Dysfunctions during Interferon Alpha Treatment (IFN) of Single and Combination Therapy in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected (HCV) Patients: A Systematic Review Based Analysis. The role of each factor in causing thyroid dysfunctions in HCV patients treated with IFN should be analyzed in detail for a better understanding of the problem and sounder clinical management of the disease. PLOS One, 02/01/2013.

Lungs (Pulmonary)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and thyroid dysfunctions. Patients with thyroid dysfunctions have a greater impairment of maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure and a negative correlation was observed between hypoxemia and subclinical hypothyroidism. PubMed, Lung, 2014 Feb;192(1):103-9.

Musculoskeletal Involvement

Anti-thyroid drugs-related myopathy: is carbimazole the real culprit? After commencing ATDs, early recognition of this rare condition and close monitoring are the essence of management. PubMed, Int J Endocrinol Metab, 2015 Jan 22;13(1):e17570. (Also see Myopathy and Myositis)

Pregnancy and Postpartum Thyroiditis (PPT)

Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis (PPT). The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either thyroid peroxidase or PPT positivity. Hindawi, Journal of Thyroid Research, 10/27/2014.

Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions remain a common cause of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Medscape, 08/12/2014.

Radiotherapy-induced Thyroid Disorders

Radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Radiation exposure of the thyroid during childhood is the most clearly defined environmental factor associated with benign and malignant thyroid tumors. UpToDate, 02/06/2013.

Stress and Thyroid Autoimmunity

Stress and thyroid autoimmunity. Stress affects the immune system either directly or indirectly through the nervous and endocrine systems. These immune modulations may contribute to the development of autoimmunity as well as the susceptibility to autoimmune disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Stress can be one of the environmental factors for thyroid autoimmunity. PubMed, Thyroid. [2004]. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma: Stress)

Thyroid Education and Support

Five Reasons You Can't Get Your Thyroid Problem Diagnosed. Many thyroid patients write to ask why it can be so incredibly hard to get diagnosed. A few things to think about. 10/31/2014..

How Armour® Thyroid Differs From Synthetic Thyroid Hormone Replacements. Armour Thyroid.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia. ISN.

Go to Graves' Disease

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