Hormones and Chromosomes in Scleroderma

Adrenocortical Function
Gender Differences
Prempro Lawsuit
X Chromosome, Mosaicism


Hormones and Chromosomes have been found to contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. This may explain why women are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases than men.

Adrenocortical Function and Scleroderma

Case Report : Pheochromocytoma Mimicking Scleroderma. Phaeochromocytoma should be suspected in patients with features of scleroderma who are negative for auto-antibodies. Hindawi.

Gender Differences in Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)

Gender differences in systemic sclerosis (SSc): relationship to clinical features, serologic status and outcomes. Gender differences may be important clues to understanding the natural history and pathogenesis of SSc. Journal of Scleroderma and Related Disorders, JSRD 2016; 1(2): 204 - 212.

Prempro and Scleroderma (Lawsuit)

Prempro Side Effects. Dermatologic side effects of medroxyprogesterone have included acne, reduced hair growth, alopecia, melasma, chloasma, rash, excessive sweating, dry skin, scleroderma, erythema multiforme, and erythema nodosum.

X Chromosome, Mosaicism, and Scleroderma

Characterization of the HLA-DRß1 third hypervariable region (3rd HVR) amino acid sequence according to charge and parental inheritance in systemic sclerosis (SSc). SSc patients differed from controls when DRB1 alleles were categorized according to 3rd HVR sequences. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2017 Mar 7;19(1):46.

X chromosome gene methylation in peripheral lymphocytes from monozygotic twins discordant for scleroderma. X chromosome genes with different methylation profiles in monozygotic twin pairs may constitute candidates for SSc susceptibility. Clin Exp Immunol.

Go to Causes of Scleroderma: Interleukins
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