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Hormones and Chromosomes in Scleroderma

Overview
Adrenocortical Function
Gender Differences
Prempro Lawsuit
X Chromosome, Mosaicism

Overview

Hormones and Chromosomes have been found to contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. This may explain why women are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases than men.

Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc and further studies should be carried out to clarify this relationship. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 2013 Dec 27.

Sex gender and autoimmunity. This volume contains a special double issue of papers, all of whom have the focus of addressing critical issues in sex, gender and autoimmunity. PubMed, J Autoimmun, [2012] Jan 3.

Sex affects immunity. Females have a lower burden of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, most evident during their reproductive years. Conversely, females have a higher prevalence of a number of autoimmune diseases, including Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). PubMed, J Autoimmun, [2012] Jan 4.

Adrenocortical Function and Scleroderma

Case Report : Pheochromocytoma Mimicking Scleroderma. Phaeochromocytoma should be suspected in patients with features of scleroderma who are negative for auto-antibodies. Hindawi, January 2012.

Gender Differences in Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)

Gender differences in systemic sclerosis (SSc): relationship to clinical features, serologic status and outcomes. Gender differences may be important clues to understanding the natural history and pathogenesis of SSc. Journal of Scleroderma and Related Disorders, JSRD 2016; 1(2): 204 - 212.

Estradiol promotes the development of a fibrotic phenotype and is increased in the serum of patients with systemic sclerosis (Ssc). Our findings implicate estrogens in the fibrotic process and may explain the preponderance of SSc in women. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2013 Jan 10;15(1):R10.

Prempro and Scleroderma (Lawsuit)

Prempro Side Effects. Dermatologic side effects of medroxyprogesterone have included acne, reduced hair growth, alopecia, melasma, chloasma, rash, excessive sweating, dry skin, scleroderma, erythema multiforme, and erythema nodosum. Drugs.com.

X Chromosome, Mosaicism, and Scleroderma

X chromosome gene methylation in peripheral lymphocytes from monozygotic twins discordant for scleroderma. X chromosome genes with different methylation profiles in monozygotic twin pairs may constitute candidates for SSc susceptibility. Clin Exp Immunol, [2012] Sep;169(3):253-62.

Go to Causes of Scleroderma: Interleukins
 
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