X Chromosome, Mosaicism
Hormones and Chromosomes have been found to contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. This may explain why women are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases than men.
Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc and further studies should be carried out to clarify this relationship. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 2013 Dec 27.
Sex gender and autoimmunity. This volume contains a special double issue of papers, all of whom have the focus of addressing critical issues in sex, gender and autoimmunity. PubMed, J Autoimmun,  Jan 3.
Sex affects immunity. Females have a lower burden of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, most evident during their reproductive years. Conversely, females have a higher prevalence of a number of autoimmune diseases, including Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). PubMed, J Autoimmun,  Jan 4.
Case Report : Pheochromocytoma Mimicking Scleroderma. Phaeochromocytoma should be suspected in patients with features of scleroderma who are negative for auto-antibodies. Hindawi, January 2012.
Gender differences in systemic sclerosis (SSc): relationship to clinical features, serologic status and outcomes. Gender differences may be important clues to understanding the natural history and pathogenesis of SSc. Journal of Scleroderma and Related Disorders, JSRD 2016; 1(2): 204 - 212.
Estradiol promotes the development of a fibrotic phenotype and is increased in the serum of patients with systemic sclerosis (Ssc). Our findings implicate estrogens in the fibrotic process and may explain the preponderance of SSc in women. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2013 Jan 10;15(1):R10.
Prempro Side Effects. Dermatologic side effects of medroxyprogesterone have included acne, reduced hair growth, alopecia, melasma, chloasma, rash, excessive sweating, dry skin, scleroderma, erythema multiforme, and erythema nodosum. Drugs.com.
X chromosome gene methylation in peripheral lymphocytes from monozygotic twins discordant for scleroderma. X chromosome genes with different methylation profiles in monozygotic twin pairs may constitute candidates for SSc susceptibility. Clin Exp Immunol,  Sep;169(3):253-62.
Reading Voices of Scleroderma Books: Diana Kramer.
Sharing Scleroderma Awareness Bracelets: Deb Martin, Brenda Miller, Vickie Risner.
Thanks to UNITED WAY donors of Central New Mexico and Snohomish County!
Patricia Ann Black: Marilyn Currier, Shelley Ensz, Richard Howitt, Gerald and Pat Ivanejko, Juno Beach Condo Association, Keith and Rosalyn Miller, and Elaine Wible.
Gayle Hedlin: Daniel and Joann Pepper and Nancy Smithberg.
Janet Paulmenn: Anonymous, Mary Jo Austin, Shelley Blaser, Susan Book, Dennis and Pat Clayton, Grace Cunha, Cindy Dorio, Michael and Patricia Donahue, Shelley Ensz, Nancy Falkenhagen, Jo Frowde, Alice Gigl, Margaret Hollywood, Karen Khalaf and Family, Susan Kvarantan, Bradley Lawrence, Jillyan Little, Donna Madge, Michele Maxson, Barry and Judith McCabe, John Moffett, My Tribute Foundation, Joan-Marie Permison, John Roberts, Margaret Roof, Maryellen Ryan, Mayalin and Kiralee Murphy, Nancy Settle-Murphy, and Bruce and Elizabeth Winter.
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