ANCA and Anti-PR3
AT1R and ETAR
DNA, Topoisomerase I
ESR (Sed Rate)
PmScl and dsDNA
TNF and IL-13
However, scleroderma is always a clinical diagnosis, which means that it is based upon symptoms and not bloodwork. This is because some people with scleroderma never develop antibodies, and also because entirely healthy people can have antibodies but never develop scleroderma or any other autoimmune disease. (Also see Overview of Antibodies, What is Scleroderma?, Types of Scleroderma and Systemic Symptoms)
Autoantibodies Present in Scleroderma, Myositis Explored in New Review. These specific autoantibodies play a role in muscle damage, their detection in an early disease stage may help predict the disease course and prognosis. Scleroderma News, 05/27/2015.
Examination of autoantibody status and clinical features that associate with cancer risk and cancer-associated scleroderma. Increased age at scleroderma onset is strongly associated with cancer risk overall. PubMed, Arthritis Rheumatol, 01/20/2015. (Also see Cancer and Scleroderma)
Novel autoantibodies in inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis. The scope of this article is to review the diagnostic and prognostic value of antibodies in inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis. PubMed, Rev Med Suisse, 2015 Jan 14;11(456-457):25-9. (Also see Myopathy and Myositis)
Early systemic sclerosis (SSc): Analysis of the disease course in patients with marker autoantibody or capillaroscopic positivity or both. The data demonstrate faster progression of SSc in autoantibody–positive patients, particularly in those with preclinical internal organ involvement at baseline, than in autoantibody–negative patients. PubMed, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2014 Feb 10. (Also see Capillaroscopy)
What autoantibody tests should become widely available to help scleroderma diagnosis and management? The newly established method for measuring autoantibodies should be carefully evaluated using large international cohorts of SSc patients and other autoimmune conditions, to establish its utility and clinical significance. Arthritis Research and Therapy 2013, 15:116
Systemic sclerosis without antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or Raynaud's phenomenon (RP): a multicentre study in the prospective EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the clinical presentation, evolution and outcome of such patients. PubMed, Rheumatology, 2013 Mar;52(3):560-7. (Also see What is Scleroderma? and Raynaud's)
Autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis. With the advent of array technologies, there is now an unprecedented capability to detect multiple autoantibodies in an individual serum and this long held tenet of clinical diagnostic immunology is being reexamined. Autoimmun Rev, 2012 Jun 25.
Increased risk of digital vascular events in scleroderma patients who have both anti–centromere (CENP) and anti–nterferon–inducible protein 16 (IF–16) antibodies. This study provides further evidence that anti–CENP and anti–IFI–16 antibodies are disease biomarkers that may be used for risk stratification of vascular events in scleroderma. PubMed, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 07/07/2016. (Also see Prognosis and Mortality)
Anti-centromere protein A antibodies in systemic sclerosis (SSc): Significance and origin. Preliminary evidence for a possible role of forkhead box protein E3 in SSc pathogenesis is discussed and for the association of different subsets of anti-CENP-A antibodies. PubMed, Autoimmun Rev, 10/09/2015.
Serology Helps Pinpoint Type of Scleroderma. Serologic status should be added to extent of skin involvement for more accurate classification of disease phenotype in systemic sclerosis. Medpage Today, 04/23/2015.
Impact of anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) on pulmonary function test (PFT) results in patients with systemic sclerosis without established or suspected pulmonary disease. Patients with ACA, without established or suspected pulmonary complications, have PFT abnormalities consistent with indolent increased pulmonary vascular resistance despite the majority of such patients not subsequently developing PAH. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 2014 Apr 22. (Also see Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis)
Centromere Antibody, IgG. Centromere antibody is present in 80-90% of individuals with CREST variant scleroderma. This antibody is also seen in 30% of Raynaud patients, 12% of patients with mixed connective-tissue disease, diffuse scleroderma, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and in a smaller percent of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and RA. ARUP Laboratories.
Agonistic anti-ICAM-1 antibodies in scleroderma (SSc): Activation of endothelial pro-inflammatory cascades. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) from SSc patients target specific endothelial antigens including ICAM-1, and cause pro-inflammatory activation of human endothelial cells, suggesting that they are not only a marker of disease but that they contribute to its progression. PubMed, Vascul Pharmacol, 2013 May 16.S1537-1891(13)00071-2. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma: Endothelin)
Antifibroblast growth factor receptor 3 antibodies identify a subgroup of patients with sensory neuropathy. These antibodies identify a subgroup of patients with SN in whom an underlying autoimmune disorder affecting sensory neurons in the dorsal root and trigeminal nerve ganglia is suspected. PubMed, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2015 Jan 27.
Definition of Antinuclear antibody. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in patients whose immune system is predisposed to cause inflammation against their own body tissues. MedicineNet.com
Antinuclear antibody negative systemic sclerosis. SSc patients who are ANA negative constitute a distinct subset of SSc with less vasculopathy, a greater proportion of males and possibly, more frequent lower gastrointestinal involvement. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 11/28/2014.
Revisiting ANCA-associated vasculitis in systemic sclerosis(SSc): clinical, serological and immunogenetic factors. SSc in overlap with ANCA-associated vasculitis is rare, and clinical features are more mixed than when either of these two conditions occurs separately. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2013 Oct;52(10):1824-31.
Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-positive pulmonary-renal syndrome in a patient with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Immunological testing demonstrated a strongly positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody with a high titre antimyeloperoxidase antibody. PubMed, BMJ Case Rep, 06/13/2013.
A new immunoprecipitation-real time quantitative PCR assay for anti-Th/To and anti-U3RNP antibody detection in systemic sclerosis. Our new method readily detects these two clinically important antibodies in SSc. Making tests for anti-Th/To and -U3RNP antibodies widely available to clinicians should be helpful in the diagnosis and follow-up of SSc patients. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 2012.
Antiphospholipid Antibodiesn (APS) and Systemic Scleroderma. APS is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of renal damage due to thrombosis at any location within the renal vasculature. Turk J Haematol, Dec 2013; 30(4): 429–430.
Angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and endothelin receptor type A (ETAR) on immune cells mediate migration and the expression of IL-8 and CCL18 when stimulated by autoantibodies from systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2014 Mar 11;16(2):R65. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma: Endothelin)
Autoantibodies to angiotensin (AT1R) and endothelin (ETAR) receptors in systemic sclerosis (SSc) induce cellular and systemic events associated with disease pathogenesis. Anti-AT1R and anti-ETAR autoantibodies could provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2014 Jan 28;16(1):R29.
BPI Antibodies: Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein and Cathepsin G Are the Major Antigenic Targets of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies in Systemic Sclerosis. The study included 33 patients with diffuse and 35 with limited SSc. Patients with antibodies to BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) had lower skin scores. J Rheumatol NO. 6 JUNE 2003;30:1248-52.
Autoantibody (Ab) against caspase-3, an executioner of apoptosis, in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). These results suggest that autoantibody against caspase-3 is generated in SSc and that this Ab is related to the severity of pulmonary fibrosis, vascular damage, and inflammation. Shihoko Okazaki (SpringerLink) Rheumatology International. July 28, 2009.
Anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid and nonrheumatoid rheumatic disorders: experience with 1162 patients. Anti-CCP are a hallmark of RA, but may be observed in other inflammatory, systemic, or mechanical diseases. PubMed, J Rheumatol, 2014 Dec;41(12):2395-402.
Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in scleroderma patients. Anti-CCP (cyclic citrullinated peptide) is considered the most useful laboratory tool in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some authors have also found this autoantibody in patients with scleroderma (SSc). PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 2012 May;31(5):877-80. (Also see Skeletal Involvement and Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Being Bullied Is Bad for Your Health. Being bullied raises the blood's level of C-Reactive Protein or CRP a marker of systemic inflammation and a risk factor for cardiovascular and other diseases. New York Times, 05/12/2014. (Also see CRP: C-Reactive Protein)
Clinical differences between Thai systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with positive versus negative anti-topoisomerase l (ATA). A high prevalence of ATA positivity was found among Thai SSc patients and this was associated with a high frequency of hand deformity, anti-centromere negativity, a short duration of pulmonary fibrosis in Diffuse SSc and a lower frequency of Raynaud's phenomenon in Limited SSc. PubMed, Int J Rheum Dis, 10/08/2014.
Eosinophilia in rheumatologic diseases: a prospective study of 1000 cases. Eosinophilia can be seen in various rheumatologic conditions but, as corticosteroids are one of the most common medications used in collagen tissue diseases, the eosinophil numbers found may be lower than expected and eosinophilia may be more frequent than reported. PubMed, Rheumatol Int. 2004 Apr 6.
Reversible IgA deficiency after severe Gram-negative bacteria infection in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Although the mechanism of secondary IgAD is still vague, its association with autoimmune diseases including SSc and also with bacterial infection is discussed. (Springerlink) Masato Yagita. Modern Rheumatology, 27 September 2010. (Also see Bacterial Infections)
Immunoglobulins. Antibodies attach to the foreign substances so the immune system can destroy them.IgG antibodies are found in all body fluids. They are the smallest but most common antibody (75% to 80%) of all the antibodies in the body. WebMD.
Epitope specificity determines pathogenicity and detectability of anti-PDGFRa autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis. Agonistic anti-PDGFRa autoantibodies are enriched in SSc sera and recognize specific conformational epitopes, that can be used to discriminate agonistic from nonagonistic antibodies and block PDGFRa signaling in SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Rheumatol, 03/25/2015.
High IgG Signals Autoimmunity in Kids. High levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in children — and particularly girls — were associated with the development of autoimmune disease. Med Page Today, 11/11/2013.
Immunodeficiency disorders. Immunodeficiency disorders occur when the body's immune response is reduced or absent. When the immune system detects an antigen, it responds by producing proteins called antibodies that destroy the harmful substances. MedlinePlus.
Ku, Rare and Specific Antigen in Scleroderma, May Be Linked to Lung Disease. Few scleroderma patients have antibodies directed specifically against the Ku antigen and have them as the only autoantibody present, are more likely to have interstitial lung disease and higher levels of a muscle degradation factor. Scleroderma News, 09/06/2016.
Anti-Ku antibodies: Clinical, genetic and diagnostic insights. Anti-Ku antibodies are reported in various connective tissue diseases and the Ku complex can be responsible for a very strong autoimmune answer in autoimmune disease. It is postulated that these antibodies could be found in 55% overlap polymyositis/systemic sclerosis patients. Belizna C. (PubMed) Autoimmun Rev, 2010 Jun 4. (Also see Polymyositis)
Anti-lipoprotein lipase antibody in systemic sclerosis: association with elevated serum triglyceride concentrations. The presence of IgG anti-LPL antibody was associated with elevated serum triglyceride levels, greater extent of skin fibrosis, and more frequent presence of lung fibrosis, heart involvement, and anti-topoisomerase I antibodies. J Rheumatol. 2005 Apr;32(4):629-36. (Also see Skin Fibrosis, Pulmonary Fibrosis, and Cardiac Involvement)
Pathogenic autoantibodies: Emerging insights into tissue injury. Accumulating evidence is emerging that B lymphocytes and autoantibodies are critical in the development of autoimmune disease. Studies of autoantibodies penetrating living cells suggest a dosage effect in generating a biological outcome in vivo. PubMed, 02-28-06. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma: B and T Cells)
Autoantibody against matrix metalloproteinase-3 in patients with systemic sclerosis. These results suggest that anti-MMP-3 antibody is a serological marker that reflects the severity of SSc and also suggest that it may contribute to the development of fibrosis by inhibiting MMP-3 activity and reducing the ECM (extracellular matrix) turnover. PubMed, Clin Exp Immunol. 2004 Nov;138(2):357-63. (Also see Skin Fibrosis)
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) and Severe Pulmonary Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis Patients with a Nucleolar Antibody. Scleroderma-specific autoantibodies and the FVC%/DLCO% ratio are helpful in determining whether a patient has PAH alone, PAH along with pulmonary fibrosis, or secondary PAH from chronic hypoxia with severe pulmonary fibrosis. J Rheumatol 2007;34:2230-5. (Also see Pulmonary Hypertension, Pulmonary Fibrosis)
Anti-PM/Scl antibodies are found in Japanese patients with various systemic autoimmune conditions besides myositis and scleroderma (SSc). In Japanese patients, anti-PM/Scl antibodies are only very rarely found, and they are not always specific for dermatomyositis (DM) or SSc. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 03/11/2015.
Good outcome of interstitial lung disease in patients with scleroderma associated to anti-PM/Scl antibody. Several features and prognosis of ILD in SSc may be modified depending on the identified immunological profile. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 07/15/2014. (Also see Pulmonary Fibrosis Prognosis)
Specific autoantibody profiles and disease subgroups correlate with circulating micro-RNA (miRNA) in systemic sclerosis. Circulating miRNA profiles differ between limited and diffuse scleroderma patients and between patients with different autoantibodies. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 07/10/2015.
Demographic and clinical features of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies (RNAP). Measurement of RNAP in SSc patients is useful for the diagnosis and risk stratification of severe manifestation, such as renal crisis and severe skin sclerosis. PubMed, J Dermatol, 12/06/2014.
Fever of unknown origin secondary to type I crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) and anti-SCl 70 antibodies without clinical manifestations of systemic sclerosis. Anti-Scl 70 antibodies are highly specific for scleroderma and are seldom present in other diseases. As far as we are aware there are no published cases of the association of type 1 CGN with anti-Scl 70 antibodies. Vega Stieb J. (PubMed) Clin Exp Nephrol. 2008 Oct;12(5):388-92. (Also see Renal Involvement)
Clinical risk assessment of organ manifestations in systemic sclerosis. Diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) and a limited cutaneous (lcSSc) subsets are associated with particular organ manifestations, but in this analysis the clinical distinction appeared superseded by an antibody based classification in predicting some scleroderma complications. PubMed, Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Feb 1. (Also see Types of Scleroderma)
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus: Associations with organ manifestations, immunolaboratory markers and disease activity indices. The production of some TAAs may also be increased in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other connective tissue diseases. E Szekanecz. PubMed, Journal of Autoimmunity Vol 31, Issue 4, Dec 2008, Pp 372-376.
Elevated serum levels of a proliferation-inducing ligand in patients with systemic sclerosis: Possible association with myositis? Our preliminary results suggest increased serum a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) levels in systemic sclerosis patients, particularly in those associated with myositis and hypergammaglobinemia. IS Bassyouni. Joint Bone Spine, 2010 Jul 2. (Also see Tumor Necrosis Factor)
Reading Voices of Scleroderma Books: Diana Kramer.
Sharing Scleroderma Awareness Bracelets: Deb Martin, Brenda Miller, Vickie Risner.
Thanks to UNITED WAY donors of Central New Mexico and Snohomish County!
Patricia Ann Black: Marilyn Currier, Shelley Ensz, Richard Howitt, Gerald and Pat Ivanejko, Juno Beach Condo Association, Keith and Rosalyn Miller, and Elaine Wible.
Gayle Hedlin: Daniel and Joann Pepper and Nancy Smithberg.
Janet Paulmenn: Anonymous, Mary Jo Austin, Shelley Blaser, Susan Book, Dennis and Pat Clayton, Grace Cunha, Cindy Dorio, Michael and Patricia Donahue, Shelley Ensz, Nancy Falkenhagen, Jo Frowde, Alice Gigl, Margaret Hollywood, Karen Khalaf and Family, Susan Kvarantan, Bradley Lawrence, Jillyan Little, Donna Madge, Michele Maxson, Barry and Judith McCabe, John Moffett, My Tribute Foundation, Joan-Marie Permison, John Roberts, Margaret Roof, Maryellen Ryan, Mayalin and Kiralee Murphy, Nancy Settle-Murphy, and Bruce and Elizabeth Winter.
SCLERO.ORG is the world leader for trustworthy research, support, education and awareness for scleroderma and related illnesses, such as pulmonary hypertension. We are a service of the nonprofit International Scleroderma Network (ISN), which is a 501(c)(3) U.S.-based public charitable foundation, established in 2002. Meet Our Team, or Volunteer. Donations may also be mailed to:
International Scleroderma Network (ISN)
7455 France Ave So #266
Edina, MN 55435-4702 USA
Email [email protected] to request our Welcome email, or to report bad links or to update this page content.