There are many methods used to categorize the various forms of scleroderma, which has brought about a confusing abundance of terms. The following categories are often found in patient literature, but use and interpretation of these categories varies quite a bit.
Two Main Types
There are two maintypes of Scleroderma: Localized and Systemic.
When scleroderma of any type afflicts children, it is called Juvenile Scleroderma. The localized forms of scleroderma (such as Linear and Morphea) are most common in children.
There are two types of Localized Scleroderma: Linear andMorphea . LocalizedScleroderma affects the skin. It may also affect the underlying muscles and bones, but it does not affect internal organs.
In general, Localized Scleroderma is relatively mild, and may be related to Systemic Scleroderma only in terms of similar superficial symptoms, such as the appearance of skin biopsy under the microscope.
系统性硬皮病有几种类型： CREST 综合症，限制性硬皮病和弥漫性硬皮病。
There are several types of Systemic Scleroderma: CREST, Limited and Diffuse. Systemic Scleroderma is also known as Systemic Sclerosis. It may also be referred to as Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, or Familial Progressive Systemic Sclerosis.
Systemic Scleroderma may affect the skin, blood vessels, and/or internal organs. When it affects the skin, it can cause the skin—most commonly on the hands and/or face—to harden. With the blood vessels, it can cause Raynaud's. When it affects the internal organs, it may cause disability or even death.
Years ago, only the worst cases of scleroderma were diagnosed, thus leading to the widespread belief that systemic scleroderma was always progressive and fatal. Now that the full range of types and severity of scleroderma are being recognized and diagnosed, there is increasing awareness that many people have a milder type of illness with a much rosier longterm prognosis.
CREST 综合症 没有皮肤硬化的症状，它是以钙质沉淀、雷诺现象、食管硬化、 指端硬化和毛细血管扩张为特征。 CREST综合症可单独出现，也可以伴随其他类型的硬皮病（或其他的免疫系统疾病）出现， 象 CREST 并限制性硬皮病， CREST 并红斑狼疮 。
CREST Syndrome, by itself, does not have any skin tightening at all. CREST stands for Calcinosis, Raynaud's, Esophagus, Sclerodactyly, and Telangiectasia. CREST may occur alone, or in combination with any other form of Scleroderma (or even other autoimmune diseases) such as CREST with Limited Scleroderma, or CREST with Lupus. See CREST.
象 Scleroderma sans Scleroderma （它只是内脏硬化，皮肤无影响）和
Familial Progressive Systemic Sclerosis（一种少见的只在家族中出现的疾病）。
Diffuse Scleroderma is when skin tightening also occurs above the wrists (or elbows, see below). There are several subcategories of Diffuse, such as Scleroderma sans Scleroderma where there is internal organ fibrosis, but no skin tightening; and Familial Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, a rare form which runs in families. See Diffuse Scleroderma.
就可称为重叠综合症。硬皮病的症状可见于混合性结缔组织病中（ MCTD ）
或 Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) 中。
If a Scleroderma patient also has any other autoimmune disease (such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) it is referred to as overlap ; as in "Diffuse Scleroderma in overlap with lupus." Scleroderma symptoms can also be a part of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD), or Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD). See Scleroderma in Overlap.
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