Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer
Malignant Atrophic Papulosis/Degos
|Medications and Cancer
Myeloma (Bone Marrow Cancer)
T Cell Lymphoma
Tongue and Oral Cancer
Just because someone has cancer does not mean that they also have scleroderma, nor does it mean that someone with scleroderma will inevitably acquire cancer. Scleroderma affects everyone differently and there is no predictable course of the illness, either in its severity, progression or outcome. However, there is an increased risk of cancer in those who have systemic scleroderma, as documented in the research articles below. (Also see Types of Scleroderma, Associated Conditions, and Causes of Scleroderma)
Cancers in systemic sclerosis (Ssc) : risk factors, impact on survival and literature review The history of renal scleroderma crisis and the positivity of anti-topoisomerase I antibodies were associated with an increased risk of cancer in SSc patients in this monocentric study. PubMed, Rev Med Interne, 06/26/2019.
Why Does Exercise Guard Against Cancer? One of the most important benefits of exercise is in how it reduces our risk of developing a number of types of cancer – especially colorectal cancer. New York Times, 04/22/2019.
Serious kidney injury common during cancer chemotherapy. Nearly one in 10 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or newer targeted drugs may be hospitalized for serious kidney injury, a Canadian study suggests. Reuters Health, 12/17/2018.
The risks of cancer development in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients: a systematic review and meta–analysis. This comprehensive meta–analysis provides epidemiological evidence supporting the associations between SLE and cancer risk. BMC Journals, Arthritis Research & Therapy, 12/06/2018. (Also see Symptoms and Complications of Lupus)
Cancer deaths rise to 9.6 million as populations grow and age. Cancer will claim the lives of 9.6 million people in 2018, accounting for one in 8 of all deaths among men and one in 11 among women, the World Health Organization’s cancer research agency said. Reuters Health, 09/12/2018.
Gene Profiling in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) Reveals the Presence of Oncogenic Gene Signatures. Our findings indicate the presence of modulated genes and miRNAs that can play a predisposing role in the development of malignancies in SSc. PubMed, Front Immunol, 2018 Mar 6;9:449.
The eight cancers that could be diagnosed with a single blood test. A single blood test detects cancers with up to 98 percent accuracy in patients without any symptoms, new research suggests. Mail Online, 01/19/2018.
Cancer survivors often living with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Cancer patients may often experience PTSD in the months after their tumors are diagnosed, and mental health issues can sometimes linger for years, a Malaysian study suggests. Reuters Health, 11/20/2017.
Novel risk factors related to cancer in scleroderma (SSc). More studies are needed to ascertain the role of anti PM/Scl antibodies and aspirin in the development of malignancy among patients with SSc. PubMed, Autoimmun Rev, 03/08/2017.
Exercise may reduce alcohol–related cancer risk. Getting regular moderate or vigorous exercise may offset some of the potentially lethal health effects of regular alcohol consumption, a new study suggests. Reuters Health, 09/16/2016.
Rare Case of Diffuse Scleroderma Triggered by Cancer Chemotherapy. A woman with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with the chemotherapy drug Xeloda (capecitabine) developed diffuse scleroderma – a condition never before linked to the use of this particular cancer drug. Scleroderma News, 08/11/2016.
Fast food may expose consumers to phthalates. People who eat a lot of fast food may be exposed to higher amounts of certain chemicals in plastics that are believed to disrupt human hormones and possibly cause cancer, according to a U.S. study. Reuters Health, 04/13/2016.
Researchers Find a Way to Light Up Cancer Cells. Detecting every cancer cell in a tumor is the best way to keep cancer from coming back and now scientists say they can tease out those cells by making them glow. Time Healthland, 01/07/2016.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: Notable Biomarkers Linking to Chronic Systemic Conditions and Cancer. Due to the complex nature of the disease, the appearance of symptoms and markers vary amongst individuals and the connections may manifest only in part. PubMed, Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(7):918-24. (Also see Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis)
How are cancer and connective tissue diseases (CTDs) related to sarcoidosis? The association between sarcoidosis and both cancer and CTDs may yield important insights into the immunopathogenesis of all three diseases. PubMed, Curr Opin Pulm Med. (Also see Connective Tissue Disease and Sarcoidosis)
Angiosarcoma: A type of cancer that begins in the lining of blood vessels. This type of tumor tends to be aggressive, recur locally, and spread widely. It can originate anywhere in the body but is well known to arise in skin, soft tissue, liver, breast, spleen, bone, lung and heart. MedicineNet.com.
(Case Report) Angiosarcoma arising in sclerodermatous skin. This is the first report of cutaneous angiosarcoma occurring in sclerodermatous skin. PubMed, Acta Dermatovenerol.
Autoantibodies and scleroderma phenotype define subgroups at high–risk and low–risk for cancer. Autoantibody specificity and disease subtype are biologically meaningful filters that may inform cancer risk stratification in patients with scleroderma. PubMed, Ann Rheum Dis, 2018 Aug;77(8):1179-1186. (Also see Antibodies)
Cancers associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc) involving anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies. Anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies are useful for SSc diagnosis in patients without anti-centromere or anti-Scl70 antibodies and their presence must lead physicians to screen for associated cancer, even in the absence of clinical signs. PubMed, Ann Dermatol Venereol, 09/13/2017. (Also see Antibodies)
Healthy diet cuts risk of dying from breast cancer in older women. A balanced, low–fat diet significantly lowers the risk of dying from breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to new long–term data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification trial. Reuters Health, 05/16/2019.
New breast cancer gene tests don't faze women. Women with breast cancer who get newer genetic tests to estimate their risk of recurrence may not be any more anxious about their test results than their peers who get older tests that focus on fewer genes, a recent study suggests. Reuters Health, 01/21/2019.
Hormone therapy and osteoporosis in breast cancer survivors: assessment of risk and adherence to screening recommendations. The natural, age–related reduction in bone density is exacerbated by breast cancer active aromatase inhibitors treatment. PubMed, Osteoporos Int, 11/09/2018. (Also see Osteoporosis)
Prevalence and risk factors for fatigue among breast cancer survivors on aromatase inhibitors. Fatigue is highly related to younger age, higher education level, higher BMI, pain severity and insomnia. PubMed, Eur J Cancer, 2018 Sep;101:47-54. (Also see Fatigue)
Wide variation in follow–up care for women with low–risk breast cancer. The kind of imaging U.S. women receive after treatment for non–metastatic breast cancer can vary widely, a new study finds. Reuters Health, 07/17/2018.
Shorter drug treatment OK for many breast cancer patients. Many women with breast cancer that is treated with Herceptin can get by with six months of the drug, greatly reducing the risk of heart damage it sometimes can cause, a study suggests. NBC News, 05/16/2018.
Breast MRIs may lead to more biopsies that catch fewer cancers. Women who get magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening tests for breast cancer are more likely to get invasive surgical biopsies to look for tumors than women who just get screening mammograms, a U.S. study suggests. Reuters Health, 02/15/2018.
Impact of Radiation Therapy on Scleroderma and Cancer Outcomes in Scleroderma Patients with Breast Cancer. These data suggest that radiation injury causing local tissue fibrosis is not inevitable in SSc patients with breast cancer, occurring in 50% of cases without evidence of lung or generalized skin disease flare. PubMed, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 01/05/2018. (Also see Radiation and Scleroderma)
Breast Cancer Awareness: Death rates decline. The American Cancer Society reported earlier this month that breast cancer death rates declined almost 40 percent between 1989 and 2015 and the reduction is attributed to screening and early detection by self–exams, mammography and improvements in treatments over the recent decades. Washington Times, 10/20/2017.
Egg freezing may not delay chemo for breast cancer patients. Women diagnosed with breast cancer who want to freeze their eggs and embryos before tumor treatment leads to infertility can do this without delaying the start of chemotherapy, a U.S. study suggests. Reuters Health, 09/20/2017.
IL-25 blockade inhibits metastasis in breast cancer. Inhibition of IL-25 resulted in decreased type 2 T cells and macrophages in the primary tumor microenvironments, both reported to enhance breast tumor invasion and subsequent metastasis to the lung. PubMed, Protein Cell, 2017 Mar;8(3):191-201. (Also see Interleukins)
Women Often Skip Mammograms After a False Positive. Women often skip recommended mammograms after they get a false–positive result: a reading that looks like cancer at first but that turns out not to be. NBC Health News, 02/09/2017.
42% Fewer U.S. Women Are Dying of Breast Cancer. Breast cancer deaths are down in many countries worldwide – but some still have major work to do. Time Healthland, 12/09/2016.
New Frontiers In Breast Cancer. There are paradigm shifts in how breast cancer is screened for and treated – and that's good news for patients. Time Healthland, 10/06/2016.
What Teen Girls Should Eat to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk. Eating more fruits from a younger age may help ward off cancer. Time Healthland, 05/11/2016.
The Dilemma of Breast Cancer Treatment and Existing Collagen Vascular Disease: A Case of Scleroderma and Review of the Literature. Early stage breast cancer in a patient with severe scleroderma is treated with breast–conserving surgery without radiation. PubMed, Breast J, 04/28/2016.
With cancer in one breast, no survival advantage in removing second one. The proportion of breast cancer patients who removed a healthy breast to prevent future cancers more than tripled over 10 years, but the procedure didn't improve their survival odds, a U.S. study finds. Reuters Health, 03/18/2016.
Eating a high-fiber diet as a teen may help prevent breast cancer later. A new study finds that women who ate more fiber in their late teens and 20s had a much lower risk of breast cancer later. Today Health, 02/01/2016.
Can the Cancer-related Fatigue Case-definition Criteria Be Applied to Chronic Medical Illness? A Comparison between Breast Cancer and Systemic Sclerosis. Harmonized definitions and measurement of clinically significant fatigue will advance research and clinical management of fatigue in rheumatic diseases and other conditions. PubMed, J Rheumatol. (Also see Fatigue)
Diane M: MCTD, and Surviving Sister of Scleroderma Patient I do not know what lies ahead for me on this path, I only hope that I can be as strong as my sister was…
A 2008 study found that there is a high prevalence of abnormal Pap smears among those with diffuse scleroderma. (Also see Diffuse Scleroderma)
Risk of high–grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Among women with SLE, immunosuppressive drugs may be associated with a greater, albeit not statistically significant, risk of high–grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared to patients receiving hydroxychloroquine alone. PubMed, Lupus, 10/31/2016. (Also see Immunosuppressants and Treatments for Lupus)
Cervical Cancer Screening In The UK To Use ‘More Accurate’ DNA Test. The NHS cervical screening program in the UK will switch to testing women first for any signs of infection with this virus that also causes cervical cancer, instead of initially looking for irregular cells. Stock News USA, 07/16/2016.
Case Report: Treatment of colon cancer in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. This report provides an effective way to diagnose colon cancer in patients with systemic lupus erythematous and illustrates a successful therapy strategy for this complex medical condition. PubMed, BMC Cancer. (Also see Symptoms and Complications of Lupus)
Blood in the stool could point to more than colon cancer. A standard test for colon cancer that looks for blood in the stool may turn up more risks than doctors or patients bargained for, researchers reported. NBC News, 07/16/2018.
New research shows vitamin D could lower risk of colorectal cancer. The American Cancer Society found having higher vitamin D levels than are currently recommended reduced the risk of colorectal cancer by 22 percent. NBC News, 06/14/2018. (Also see Vitamin D)
Mouth bacteria linked to esophageal cancer. An analysis of microbes sampled from the mouths of more than 120,000 people has found that two types of bacteria that lead to gum disease are also linked to higher risk of esophageal cancer. Medical News Today, 12/01/2017.
More Young People Are Dying of Colon Cancer. Now a new study has found that younger Americans are dying of colorectal cancer at slightly higher rates than in previous decades, and no one really knows why. New York Times, 08/22/2017.
This Common Processed Food Ingredient Causes Cancer in Mice. A new study shows that emulsifiers, which are added to many processed foods, can cause cancer in animals. Time Healthland, 11/07/2016.
Very hot drinks 'probably' cause cancer, UN says. Drinking very hot drinks such as coffee or tea 'probably' causes cancer, the UN has said. The Independent, 06/15/2016. (Also see Esophageal Involvement)
Keyhole operation to fight off the colon cancer invading your liver. Doctors are trialling an innovative surgical technique to remove secondary cancers that have spread to the liver. Mail Online, 03/20/2016.
How Do You Die From Leukemia? People diagnosed with leukemia and multiple myeloma, both cancers originating in the bone marrow, are living much longer than they did just a few decades ago. New York Times, 08/17/2018.
Missing microbes 'cause' childhood cancer. Our modern germ–free life is the cause of the most common type of cancer in children, according to one of Britain's most eminent scientists. BBC News, 05/21/2018.
New Gene Treatment Effective for Some Leukemia Patients. A new way of genetically altering a patient’s cells to fight cancer has helped desperately ill people with leukemia when every other treatment had failed, researchers reported. New York Times, 11/20/2017. (Also see B Cells and T Cells)
(PDF) Autoimmunity and cancer: a lesson from systemic sclerosis. Allied Academies, 2018. (Also see Liver Involvement)
Whole grains might help ward off liver cancer. Yet another benefit of eating a diet containing high amounts of whole grains may be a reduced risk of liver cancer, a new U.S. study suggests. Reuters Health, 02/21/2019.
Clinicopathological features of lung cancer (LC) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Lower likelihood for receiving surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy was reported for LC patients with RA. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 08/02/2018. (Also see Symptoms and Complications of Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Solitary organizing pneumonia (SOP) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) mimicking lung adenocarcinoma. SOP is often misdiagnosed and removed surgically as it is rare and difficult to distinguish from lung carcinoma. SOP should be considered when a solitary nodular lung lesion is noted in a patient with SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Rheumatol. (Also see Lung Involvement: Pneumonia)
Case Study: Possible anti-metastatic effect of Iloprost in a patient with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with lung cancer. Herein, we report iloprost treatment of a 60-year-old-woman with SSc, who lately developed pulmonary hypertension as a complication of her disease and lung adenocarcinoma as a co-incidence simultaneously. Yavuz Pehlivan, Reheumatology International. (Also see Inhaled Prostacyclin)
Clinical features and outcome of lymphoma patients with pre–existing autoimmune diseases. Lymphoma patients with and without autoimmune disorders had comparable outcomes and autoimmune diseases are not an obstacle to lymphoma treatment. PubMed, Int J Rheum Dis, 12/05/2017.
Haematological Malignancies in Systemic Sclerosis Patients. The majority of cases presented with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Case Reports in Rheumatology, Volume 2017, Article ID 6230138.
(Case Report) Lesions resembling malignant atrophic papulosis in a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP), or Degos syndrome, is a rare disorder of unknown etiology (cause). It is characterized by a deep subcutaneous vasculopathy resulting in atrophic, porcelain-white papules. PubMed, Cutis. (Also see Types of Scleroderma)
(Case Report) Systemic sclerosis and gastric MALT lymphoma. MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas are usually confined to the gastric wall. Gastric MALT lymphomas have a well-established association with H. pylori infection. Eradication of H. pylori is the mainstay of treatment. PubMed, Joint Bone Spine. (Also see Gastrointestinal Involvement)
Anti-cancer Therapy May Help Fight Inflammation in Scleroderma (SSc) Patients, Data Suggest. These results suggest that tagraxofusp might be a potential therapeutic approach for SSc or other autoimmune diseases. Scleroderma News, 06/26/2019. (Also see Dendritic Cells)
Palliative care training helps doctors steer cancer patients away from major surgery. Doctors who don’t have palliative care training are more likely to recommend aggressive surgery for patients with life–limiting diseases, a study suggests. Reuters Health, 05/22/2018.
Companies Rush to Develop ‘Utterly Transformative’ Gene Therapies. The approval of gene therapy for leukemia, expected in the next few months, will open the door to a radically new class of cancer treatments. New York Times, 07/23/2017.
Harnessing the Immune System to Fight Cancer. New drugs and methods of altering a patient's own immune cells are helping some cancer patients – but not all – even when standard treatments fail. New York Times, 07/30/2016.
Three quarters of dermatologists think sunbeds should be BANNED entirely amid soaring rates of skin cancer, poll reveals. Nine out of ten skin experts believe sunbeds on the high street are leading to a rise in skin cancer cases and deaths. Mail Online, 07/22/2019.
Skin Cancer and Other Skin Complications for People with Scleroderma. The skin is the largest organ in the body and is affected in most scleroderma patients. Scleroderma News, 11/07/2018.
Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in psoriatic patients treated with high-dose phototherapy. A thorough risk-benefit evaluation should always be done before UV treatment and patients should be carefully monitored for skin cancer during and after treatment discontinuation. PubMed, J Dermatolog Treat, 2016 Oct;27(5):443-7. (Also see Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis)
The dark side of the light: Phototherapy adverse effects. Despite concerns over the carcinogenic potential of ultraviolet radiation, most studies have not found an increased risk of non–melanoma or melanoma skin cancer in patients treated with ultraviolet B (broadband and narrowband) and ultraviolet A1 phototherapy. PubMed, Clin Dermatol, 2016 Sep-Oct;34(5):556-62. (Also see Morphea Treatments and Clinical Trials: Positive Results)
(Case Report) Jo-1 positive paraneoplastic systemic sclerosis in a patient with metastatic melanoma. This rare case of SSc concurrent with melanoma suggests that besides other possible mechanisms, paraneoplastic etiology (cause) can be responsible for the association between SSc and cancer. PubMed, Eur J Dermatol.
Case Report: Systemic sclerosis and myositis as a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to multiple myeloma (MM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reporting these two clinical conditions simultaneously associated with MM. PubMed, Acta Reumatol Port. (Also see Myopathy and Myositis)
Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and autoimmune disorders (AD): Cause or consequence? Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) are frequently associated with clinical manifestations of autoimmune disorders (AD) and inflammatory response of the immune system. PubMed, Best Pract Res Clin Haematol.
What are the risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma? Some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus), Sjogrens disease, celiac sprue (gluten-sensitive enteropathy), and others have been linked with an increased rate of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. American Cancer Society.
The FDA Just Approved a New Way of Fighting Cancer Using Personalized Gene Therapy. Immune–based cancer treatments are surging forward as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the second of a new technology called CAR T, this time to treat diffuse large b-cell lymphoma, a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Time Healthland, 10/19/2017.
Laira: MCTD, Scleroderma, SLE, Lupus, CREST, Lymphoma I was just seventeen when I was told I had rheumatoid arthritis…
Birth Control Pills May Help Prevent Some Cancers. In a new study published in JAMA Oncology, researchers explore how oral contraceptives, which affect women’s hormone levels to prevent pregnancy, affect cancer risk. Time Healthland, 01/18/2018.
Low concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) promote human ovarian cancer cell proliferation and glycolysis–based metabolism through the estrogen receptor (ER)– α pathway. Our findings revealed a new mechanism through which BPA promoted cell proliferation by reinforcing glycolysis–based energy production dependent on ER signaling. PubMed, Chemosphere, 2017 Jul 9;185:361-367.
Irregular Periods May Raise Ovarian Cancer Risk, Study Finds. Women who had unpredictable cycles in their 20s were more likely to develop ovarian cancer decades later. NBC News, 04/21/2016.
Dietary saturated fat linked to aggressive prostate cancer. Men with prostate cancer may be more likely to have the most serious form of the disease if their diet contains a lot of fat from meat and dairy, a recent U.S. study suggests. Reuters Health, 10/07/2016.
Prostate Cancer Study Details Value of Treatments. A new study offers important information to men who are facing difficult decisions about how to treat prostate cancer in its early stages, or whether to treat it at all. New York Times, 09/14/2016.
(Case Report) Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma with an unusual proliferation of epstein-barr virus-associated large B cells arising in a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis. The cause was suggested to be closely associated with immunosuppressive treatment for progressive systemic sclerosis. PubMed, Acta Haematol. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma: Medications)
Increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer (TC) in systemic sclerosis associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with SSc have an increased risk of malignancy compared with the general population and these data suggest a high prevalence of papillary TC, in particular in the presence of thyroid autoimmunity. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford). (Also see Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases)
Cancers of the Oral Mucosa. Immune defects may predispose to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), especially lip cancer. OSCC is also now being reported with increased frequency in association with diabetes and systemic sclerosis. Medscape. (Also see Dental Involvement: Oral Cancers and Diabetes)
(Case Report) Tongue squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Periodic screening examinations are necessary to discover possible malignancies in primary stages in patients with systemic sclerosis. ResearchGate.
Rheumatic disorders as paraneoplastic syndromes. The long-established observation that some rheumatologic disorders (RDs) are associated with, or precede, the clinical manifestations of a variety of solid and hematological tumors represents an important clue for the early diagnosis and effective treatment of the cancers. PubMed, Autoimmun Rev.
Anna B: Morphea My morphea started as bruise-like marks on the backs of my legs about three years ago, after I had just fought cervical cancer and won…
Bri: Morphea Scleroderma I am currently waiting to have plastic surgery. They are going to do reverse liposuction; taking some fat and tissue from my left leg and then inject it into my right leg…
Buggzy: Autoimmune Hepatitis, Fibromyalgia, Undiagnosed I am really desperate to get some answers or to hear from others in the same boat as me…
Carrie: CREST Syndrome All this started in 1995, as far as receiving any diagnosis. First, I was diagnosed with breast cancer. I went through radiation and chemotherapy…
Christin: Linear Scleroderma My name is Christin. I am a twenty-year-old college student. I have had scleroderma for as long as I can remember…
Craig R: CREST Scleroderma I had my first scleroderma symptoms at age twenty-two, which included severe Raynaud's with some ulceration and tissue loss…
Dwight: Surviving Son of Scleroderma Patient My dear mother, Drema L Shaver, passed away one year ago today…
Janice E: CREST/Fibromyalgia At some point I came to the realization that what I was feeling just could not be normal. By this time my hands were swelling…
Kellie: Overlap Scleroderma and Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD) I am so relieved to read about so many people who have had the same experiences…
Kym: Diffuse, CREST Scleroderma, Lupus and Fibromyalgia It all started with Raynaud's in my fingers and toes when I was about nineteen years old, in 1979…
Marina: Diffuse Scleroderma I was sent to a rheumatologist who spent one and a half hours checking me while explaining this rare and incurable autoimmune connective tissue disease in a nut shell…
Mike Thomas: Diffuse Scleroderma The doctors keep passing me around saying that I am too complicated for them to treat. So nothing gets done…
Rachel: Morphea Scleroderma I have learned to control the use of addicting medication and to manage the pain as well as possible…
TOLL FREE HOTLINE, U.S. and Canada: 1-800-564-7099
Ask for our Free Info Packet by email or postal mail!
SCLERO.ORG is the world's leading nonprofit for trustworthy research, support, education and awareness for scleroderma and related illnesses.
We are a service of the nonprofit International Scleroderma Network (ISN), which is a 501(c)(3) U.S.-based public charitable foundation, established in 2002. Meet Our Team, or Volunteer. Donations may also be mailed to: