Diagnosis of systemic lupus can take many years. Even then, it is sometimes only diagnosed by autopsy.
It can help to keep on going to the same rheumatologist because switching doctors might only serve to further delay a diagnosis. It takes awhile (sometimes years or even decades) for certain symptoms to appear — and the accumulated symptoms may be quickly dismissed by a new doctor because they haven't personally witnessed them. (Also see Autoimmune Diseases and Overview of Lupus)
High Prevalence and Disease Correlation of Autoantibodies Against p40 Encoded by Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. These autoantibodies may represent an early immune response against LINE-1 p40 that does not yet by itself imply clinically significant autoimmunity. PubMed, Arthritis Rheumatol, 2020 Jan;72(1):89-99.
Discovery of new serum biomarker panels for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis. The combined autoantibody panels identified here show promise for the diagnosis of SLE and for differential diagnosis of other major rheumatic immune diseases. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 01/03/2020.
Novel biomarkers containing citrullinated peptides for diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using protein microarrays. A citrullinated/non-citrullinated peptide panel is a valuable diagnostic marker of SLE, even for patients who are negative for anti-Smith, anti-double-stranded DNA, and anticardiolipin. PubMed, Clin Exp Rheumatol, 2019 Nov-Dec;37(6):929-936.
Clinical evaluation of total and high-avidity (HA) anti-dsDNA antibody assays (EIA) for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The HA anti-dsDNA EIA kit in association with the total anti-dsDNA kit provided superior performance in SLE diagnosis and monitoring disease activity. PubMed, Lupus, 09/30/2019.
T cell receptor β repertoires (TCR) as novel diagnostic markers for systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. These characteristics of the TCR repertoire can potentially serve as biomarkers and provide novel insights for disease status and therapeutical targets in autoimmune diseases. PubMed, Ann Rheum Dis, 05/17/2019. (Also see Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Soluble TNF-R1, VEGF and other cytokines as markers of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN). These results indicate that for active LN, sTNF-R1 could be a useful serum cytokine marker, with potential for vascular endothelial growth factor in the urine. PubMed, Lupus, 2019 May 2:961203319845487. (Also see Interleukins)
High levels of circulating interferons (IFNs) type I, type II and type III associate with distinct clinical features of active systemic lupus erythematosus. Our findings suggest that IFNs contribute to the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations in SLE, and measuring circulating IFNs could assist in designing clinical trials with therapies targeting IFN pathways. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2019 Apr 29;21(1):107.
Deltex1 (DTX1) suppresses T cell function and is a biomarker for diagnosis and disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). DTX1 expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly lower in SLE patients and had an inverse correlation with disease activity, indicating that the DTX1 level may be a good disease marker of SLE. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 01/09/2019. (Also see B Cells and T Cells)
Serum miRNA-371b-5p and miRNA-5100 (MicroRNAs) act as biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These results suggested that miR-371b-5p and miR-5100 may act as serum biomarkers for SLE. ScienceDirect, Clinical Immunology, 10/07/2018.
Galectin-9 is an easy to measure biomarker for the interferon signature in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Galectin-9 is a novel, easy to measure hence clinically applicable biomarker to detect the IFN signature in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases such as SLE and APS. PubMed, Ann Rheum Dis, 09/05/2018. (Also see Antiphospholipid Syndrome)
Many UK Lupus Patients Face Three–year Diagnosis Delay, Study Reports. It took more than three years for 1,000 Britons with lupus, scleroderma and vasculitis to obtain a correct diagnosis after their symptoms began, a study shows. Lupus News, 03/09/2018.
Serum Interleukin-34 Levels Are Elevated in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Serum IL-34 could be a candidate biomarker for SLE as there are elevated serum levels in treatment–naive SLE patients and a significant decrease after effective treatment was seen. PubMed, Molecules, 2016 Dec 28;22(1).
The diagnosis and management of the haematologic manifestations of lupus (SLE). In this review the most common and characteristic haematological manifestations of SLE patients are considered, focusing on their pathogenesis and management. PubMed, J Autoimmun, 2016 Nov;74:139-160.
(Case Reports): Indicating the dilemma in diagnosing lupus cerebritis. Lupus Cerebritis should be included in the provisional diagnosis of a female patient of reproductive age group, who presents with complicated neurological manifestations and with no clear-cut clinical, pathological, or image finding. PubMed, J Family Med Prim Care.
Lupus Diagnosis Can Be Difficult. Lupus Foundation of America.
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