Multiple Sclerosis

Author: Shelley Ensz. Scleroderma is highly variable. See Types of Scleroderma. Read Disclaimer
Overview of Multiple Sclerosis
Symptoms of MS
Overlaps with MS
MS and Glandular Fever
MS and Scleroderma
Causes of MS
Treatments and Clinical Trials
MS Research
Personal Stories About MS
Support Organizations
MS Media Stories


Muliple Sclerosis KaleidoscopeMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, causing intermittent or chronic symptoms. It may cause muscle pain, weakness and tremors; dizziness, depression, parasthesias and fatigue; bladder and bowel dysfunction; and speech or vision disturbances.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). PubMed, Health.


Factors associated with receiving bone mineral density (BMD) screening among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Factors known to be associated with low BMD were associated with BMD screening in people with MS, but a clinically meaningful proportion of individuals with MS who have low bone mass may be missed. PubMed, Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2019 Jan 8;28:305-308. (Also see Osteoporosis)

Prevalence of fatigue and its association with clinical features in progressive and non–progressive forms of Multiple Sclerosis. Fatigue was more prevalent amongst participants with progressive MS and higher fatigue severity and impact were associated with greater physical, cognitive, and psychological impairment. PubMed, Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2019 Jan 3;28:276-282. (Also see Fatigue)

The MRZ reaction helps to distinguish rheumatologic disorders with central nervous involvement (RDwCNS) from multiple sclerosis. Considering the high specificity of MRZR-2 for MS found in this study, MRZR-2 can be a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing MS from RDwCNS or other inflammatory neurological diseases. PubMed, BMC Neurol, 2018 Jan 31;18(1):14.

Depression and fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS): Relation to exposure to violence and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunomarkers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, fatigue, and exposure to violence, with IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the CSF of MS patients. PubMed, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2018 Jan 4;89:53-58. (Also see Depression and Fatigue)

Ocular Motor Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The high prevalence of ocular motor manifestations emphasizes the importance of neuro–ophthalmological examination among patients with MS. PubMed, J Neuroophthalmol, 04/13/2017.

Protective personality traits: High openness and low neuroticism linked to better memory in multiple sclerosis (MS). Personality may inform predictive models of memory impairment in MS. PubMed, Mult Scler, 2017 Jan 1:1352458516685417.

Is There an Increased Risk for Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and If So, Should Preventive Treatment Be Considered? Although the comorbidity of ischemic stroke for patients with MS is likely valid, there are outstanding issues that should be considered before applying preventive treatment strategies for MS patients in a broad–based manner. PMC, Front Neurol, 2016; 7: 128.

Characterizing the phenotype of multiple sclerosis (MS)–associated depression in comparison with idiopathic major depression. The clinical phenotype of “idiopathic” major depressive disorder and MS–associated depression appears similar when adequately examined. PubMed, Mult Scler, 01/08/2016. (Also see Depression)


Comorbidity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). One of the best ways to address comorbidity in MS may be to prevent it altogether. PMC, Int J MS Care, 2016 Nov–Dec; 18(6): 271–272.

Examining the joint effect of disability, health behaviors, and comorbidity on mortality in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Presence of comorbidities was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality as compared to absence of comorbidities after adjusting for factors associated with survival. PubMed, Neurol Clin Pract, 2016 Oct;6(5):397-408.

Multiple Sclerosis and Glandular Fever

The increased antibody response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted to selected virus proteins. Our hypothesis is that MS patients will have an increased antibody response to only selected EBV antigens and the antibody response was increased in MS to three of the EBV proteins, but not to the other seven. PubMed, J Neuroimmunol, 2016 Oct 15;299:147-151.

Multiple Sclerosis and Scleroderma

Multiple sclerosis (MS) sometimes occurs along with other autoimmune diseases, but seems to be rare in association with systemic scleroderma. Very few cases have been identified in medical journals.

Lisa W: Diffuse Scleroderma, CREST and Multiple Sclerosis I was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). That also took over a year to diagnose. My doctors tell me that I am one out of millions with this case of bad luck…


Cell–specific and region–specific transcriptomics in the multiple sclerosis model: Focus on astrocytes. The potential role of cholesterol synthesized by astrocytes during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and MS is discussed. PubMed, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Jan 9;115(2):E302-E309.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) with atypical MRI presentation: Results of a nationwide multicenter study in 57 consecutive cases. A significant number of MS patients can have a striking atypical presentation and may be misdiagnosed. PubMed, Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2018 Dec 18;28:109-116

Treatments and Clinical Trials

Selective Modulation of TNF-TNFRs Signaling: Insights for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Treatment. A receptor–selective modulation of TNFα signal pathways provides a novel therapeutic concept that might lead to new insights in MS pathology with major implications for its effective treatment. PubMed, Front Immunol, 2018 Apr 30;9:925.

Eye and balance exercises may ease multiple sclerosis symptoms. People with multiple sclerosis who do balance and eye movement exercises may feel steadier on their feet and experience less fatigue and dizziness, a small trial suggests. Reuters Health, 02/15/2018.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Blood test offers new way to monitor disease activity. Monitoring disease activity in individuals with MS, might be done with a simple blood test that measures levels of a nerve protein, according to a new study from Norway. Medical News Today, 11/30/2017.

Breakthrough study offers new hope for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Remarkable results from an NHS study into groundbreaking stem cell therapy has led experts to cautiously suggest it may halt MS from worsening, and in some cases lead to long–lasting remission. Mail Online, 09/18/2017. (Also see Stem Cell Transplantation)

Patients volunteer for pioneering treatment by Cambridge scientist on verge of curing multiple sclerosis. Scores of people living with multiple sclerosis have put themselves forward for clinical trials as part of a Cambridge scientist’s bid to develop a treatment to cure the disease. Cambridge News, 06/09/2017.

Identification of treatment responders based on multiple longitudinal outcomes with applications to multiple sclerosis patients. Our simulation study shows that incorporating multiple outcomes improves the responder identification performance; this can occur even if some of the outcomes are ineffective. PubMed, Stat Med, 02/01/2017.

Target regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway by cannabidiol in treatment of experimental multiple sclerosis (MS).These results provide an interesting discovery about the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway by cannabidiol administration, that could be a new potential therapeutic target for MS management. PubMed, Fitoterapia, 2017 Jan;116:77-84. (Also see Endocannabinoid System)


Impaired NK–mediated regulation of T-cell activity in multiple sclerosis is reconstituted by IL-2 receptor modulation. Therapeutic immune modulation of IL-2 receptor restores impaired immune regulation in MS by increasing the proportion of CD155-expressing CD4(+) T cells and the cytolytic activity of NK cells. PubMed, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 May 24;113(21):E2973-82. (Also see B Cells and T Cells and Natural Killer Cells)

Personal Stories About Multiple Sclerosis or Difficult Diagnosis

Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, lupus and scleroderma can be very difficult to properly diagnose, particularly in the early stages of illness. Many of these stories regard onset of scleroderma during which time MS was considered as a possible diagnosis. (Also see Difficult Diagnosis)

Boo: CREST Scleroderma Finally in 1994, it was labeled as CREST syndrome, which is a form of systemic scleroderma…

Beverly: CREST Scleroderma I was overtired and needed naps in the afternoon, pain was slowly getting the better of me and I finally went to the doctor…

Carla: CREST Syndrome and Fibromyalgia When I read some of these stories, they scare the devil out of me. Is this really that bad?…

Cindy Fuchs-Morrissey: Mother of a Progressive Systemic Sclerosis Child Hilary has an aggressive form of scleroderma with swallowing problems, bowel problems, fatigue, acral bone dysplasia of the hands and feet…

Debbie: CREST Here's a copy of a letter I sent to my rheumatologist…

Kathi: Scleroderma/Lupus I am forty-three years old and have not been feeling well for ten years…

Krisha S: Multiple Autoimmune Condition I have multiple sclerosis (MS), fibromyalgia, and Stiff Person Syndrome…

Lisa W: Diffuse Scleroderma, CREST and Multiple Sclerosis I was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). That also took over a year to diagnose. My doctors tell me that I am one out of millions with this case of bad luck…

McKenzie: Scleroderma with CREST I felt numbness crept down both my legs. I said, "I can't feel my legs!" and sat down on the floor…

Nan: Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Fibromyalgia Finally after several years of struggle, one wonderful doctor at OSU got gutsy and gave me the MCTD diagnosis…


(U.S.) National Multiple Sclerosis Society The mission of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society is to end the devastating effects of MS. National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

Media Stories

Multiple Sclerosis in the Media throughout History. Autobiographies and media attention about sufferers with MS have helped bring this disease, and the ability to cope with it, to greater public attention. There has been a dramatic change in attitudes on public and patient education about MS. Demos Health.

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