Hashimoto's Thyroiditis or Hypothyroidism

Overview of Hashimoto's
Symptoms of Hashitmoto's
Causes of Hashimoto's
Diagnosis of Hashimoto's
Treatments of Hashimoto's
Cancer and Hashimoto's
Central Nervous System and Dementia with Hashimoto's
Sleep Apnea and Hashimoto's
Thyroid Support


Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland, causing hypothyroidism (a depletion of thyroid hormone.) It is diagnosed by blood tests for thyroid antibodies, and treated with thyroid replacement medications.

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a condition caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland.

Hashimoto's vs. Hypothyroidism: What's the Difference? Hashimoto's disease is a disease, and hypothyroidism is a condition. Hypothyroidism is most commonly caused by Hashimoto's disease, but the two terms are not interchangeable. Here is more information to help understand the difference. VeryWell.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT): Relative recurrence risk ratio and implications for screening of first degree relatives. Relatives of HT patients have a 9 fold increased risk for developing HT as compared to the general population and the risk of developing HT exceeds that of the general population at 20 years in females and 27 years in males. PubMed, Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 03/08/2017.


Symptoms of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. Symptoms may include fatigue, cold sensitivity, constipation, dry skin, puffy face, hoarseness, weight gain, muscle weakness and aches, joint pain, menorrhagia, and depression. Mayo Clinic.


Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Diagnosis. This article covers the 3 most common diagnostic tests that detect this common thyroid disorder: the thyroid-stimulating hormone test, anti-thyroid antibodies tests, and the free T4 hormone test. Endocrineweb.


Increased serum interleukin-37 (IL-37) levels correlate with oxidative stress parameters in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). IL-37 is up-regulated in HT and may exert a protective role by counteracting oxidative stress and inflammation. PubMed, J Endocrinol Invest, 2019 Feb;42(2):199-205.

Meta–Analysis of the Association between Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and the Risk of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease. The present study suggested that VDR rs731236, rs1544410, rs2228570, and rs7975232 polymorphisms were significantly associated with AITD risk. PubMed, Int J Endocrinol, 2018 Mar 22;2018:2846943.

Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), anti–thyroid antibodies and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There is a two–fold increased risk of HT in SLE patients, Anti–SM antibodies favor this association and also double antibody positivity. PubMed, Int J Rheum Dis, 05/25/2017. (Also see Antibodies in Lupus)

An unusual association of three autoimmune disorders: celiac disease (CD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This case is unusual: the rare combination of the three autoimmune diseases, their appearance in a man and the atypical onset of the diseases with psychiatric symptoms likely to be related either to CD or to SLE. PubMed, Auto Immun Highlights. (Also see Lupus in Overlap, Celiac Disease and Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome)

(Case Report) A rare association of localized scleroderma (LS) type morphea, vitiligo, autoimmune hypothyroidism, pneumonitis, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura and central nervous system vasculitis. It is likely that localized scleroderma has an autoimmune origin and in this case becomes part of multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which consist of the presence of three or more well-defined autoimmune diseases in a single patient. PubMed, BMC Res Notes. (Also see Causes of Morphea, Vitiligo, Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Vasculitis, and Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome)

Treatments of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Case Report: Managing Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT) Through Personalized Care. Thyroid replacement therapy has long been the foundation of medical treatment for HT; however, recent research supports a role for nutritional approaches. PubMed, Altern Ther Health Med.

Management of hypothyroidism with combination thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormone replacement in clinical practice: a review of suggested guidance. Whilst evidence is lacking on whether a small group of patients may benefit from combination therapy a trial may be indicated in those who remain symptomatic despite adequate levothyroxine monotherapy. PubMed, Thyroid Res, 2018 Jan 17;11:1.

Vitamin D Treatment in Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis may Decrease the Development of Hypothyroidism. Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and treatment of patients with this condition with Vitamin D may slow down the course of development of hypothyroidism and also decrease cardiovascular risks in these patients. PubMed, Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2017 Jul 12:1-9. (Also see Vitamin D Deficiency)

Cancer and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Papillary thyroid carcinoma linked to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Data from a recent meta-analysis demonstrate that papillary thyroid cancer is significantly associated with pathologically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis, despite decades of controversy. Eur J Endocrinol.

Central Nervous System (CNS) and Dementia with Hashimoto's

Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with acute confusional state in a patient with hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology associated with thyroid autoimmunity. The disease may present as two types, a sudden vasculitic type or a progressive subacute type associated with cognitive dysfunction, confusion and memory loss. ScienceDirect, Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette.


Goiters. The term “goiter” simply refers to the abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a more common cause of goiter formation in the US. American Thyroid Association.

Sleep Apnea and Hashimoto's

Hashimoto thyroiditis and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: is there any relation between them? Five patients with HT showed the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (one severe, one moderate and three mild OSAS), whereas no sleep breathing disturbance was found in the control group. These findings suggest that sleep related breathing problems may develop in the patients with autoimmune thyroiditis even if they are euthyroid. PubMed, Eur J Med Res.

Thyroid Education and Support

How Armour® Thyroid Differs From Synthetic Thyroid Hormone Replacements. Armour Thyroid.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia. ISN.

Go to Thyroid Personal Stories

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