Ethnicity, Race and Geographical Regions

Race and Ethnicity
Geographical Regions

Causes of Scleroderma by Ethnicity, Race and Geography

Factors that may incline a person to develop scleroderma include race, ethnicity, and geography. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma, What is Scleroderma?, Types of Scleroderma, and Systemic Sclerosis)

Research progress in epigenetic studies on systemic sclerosis (SSc). In recent years, with the in-depth study of the epigenetics of SSc, the DNA methylation and miRNA has been the most widely studied. PubMed, Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 2018 Dec 28;43(12):1369-1375.

Race and Ethnicity

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Autoantibodies Define Scleroderma Subtypes and Risk in African and European Americans and Suggest a Role for Molecular Mimicry. These data suggest a possible link between HLA alleles, autoantibodies, and environmental triggers in the pathogenesis of systemic scleroderma. PubMed, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020 Jan 7;117(1):552-562.

Racial differences in systemic sclerosis (SSc) disease presentation: a European Scleroderma Trials and Research group study. We evaluated differences in SSc presentations between white patients, Asian patients and black patients and analysed the effects of geographical locations. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 11/04/2019.

Ethnic Variations in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) Disease Manifestations, Internal Organ Involvement, and Mortality. Ethnic variations in some SSc disease manifestations are observed, but this does not result in significant differences in short-term survival but may affect long-term survival. PubMed, J Rheumatol, 2019 Sep;46(9):1103-1108.

Early mortality in a multinational systemic sclerosis (SSc) inception cohort. Early mortality in SSc is substantial and prevalent cohorts underestimate mortality in SSc by failing to capture early deaths, particularly in men and those with diffuse disease. PubMed, Arthritis Rheumatol, 2017 May;69(5):1067-1077. (Also see Prognosis and Mortality)

Deficient Adipogenesis of Scleroderma (SSc) Patient and Healthy African American (AA) Monocytes. Our observations strongly suggest that caveolin-1 and PPARĪ³ work together to maintain a balance between the fibrogenic and adipogenic differentiation of monocytes, that this balance is altered in SSc and in healthy AA. PubMed, Front Pharmacol, 2017 Apr 3;8:174.

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II alleles, haplotypes, and epitopes which confer susceptibility or protection in the fibrosing autoimmune disease systemic sclerosis (SSc): analyses in 1300 Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic cases and 1000 controls. These data indicate unique and multiple HLA class II effects in SSc, especially on autoantibody markers of different sub-phenotypes. Ann Rheum Dis.

Systemic sclerosis in Sarawak: a profile of patients treated in the Sarawak General Hospital. This study demonstrates the rarity of systemic sclerosis in a multi-ethnic groups, predominantly Chinese, Sarawak natives and Malays with considerable lag time to diagnosis. Diffuse cutaneous systemic scleroderma was more common with rare pulmonary hypertension and renal involvement.The Rheumatology International.

Geographical Regions

Genes and antibodies for scleroderma and its various symptoms can vary by geographic regions throughout the world. For example, Chinese systemic scleroderma patients typically have milder disease overall, but are more likely to have myositis (muscle inflammation) and certain autoantibodies than other ethnicities.

Survival and prognosis factors in systemic sclerosis (SSc): data of a French multicenter cohort, systematic review, and meta-analysis of the literature. Our study highlights a high mortality rate in SSc patients and confirms previously described prognosis factors related to skin extension and organ involvement. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2019 Apr 3;21(1):86.

Prognostic profile of systemic sclerosis (SSc): analysis of the clinical EUSTAR cohort in China. In China, although there is a high prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with SSc (85.5%), most of them have reserved pulmonary function, which means that ILD is not the most important factor in the death of patients with SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2018 Oct 22;20(1):235.

Single–specificity anti-Ku antibodies in an international cohort of 2140 systemic sclerosis (SSc) subjects: clinical associations. This is the largest cohort to date focusing on the prevalence and disease characteristics of single–specificity anti-Ku antibodies in subjects with SSc. PubMed, Medicine (Baltimore). (Also see Antibodies)

Anti-PM/Scl antibodies are found in Japanese patients with various systemic autoimmune conditions besides myositis and scleroderma (SSc). In Japanese patients, anti-PM/Scl antibodies are only very rarely found, and they are not always specific for dermatomyositis (DM) or SSc; they are also present in various autoimmune conditions PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther. (Also see Antibodies)

Go to Causes of Scleroderma: Hormones and Chromosomes

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