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Hormones and Chromosomes in Scleroderma

Adrenocortical Function
Gender Differences
Prempro Lawsuit
X Chromosome, Mosaicism


Hormones and Chromosomes have been found to contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. This may explain why women are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases than men.

Adrenocortical Function and Scleroderma

Case Report : Pheochromocytoma Mimicking Scleroderma. Phaeochromocytoma should be suspected in patients with features of scleroderma who are negative for auto-antibodies. Hindawi.

Gender Differences in Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)

Higher estrogen levels linked to more severe disease in scleroderma. Higher estradiol levels were associated with more severe disease and heart involvement in men and in those positive for the autoantibody Scl-70, a greater risk of death. Science Daily, 06/06/2019.

Secrets of the Y Chromosome. The sex chromosome also influences health in hidden ways, some experts believe, and may even explain why men have shorter life spans. New York Times, 06/11/2018.

Prempro and Scleroderma (Lawsuit)

Prempro Side Effects. Dermatologic side effects of medroxyprogesterone have included acne, reduced hair growth, alopecia, melasma, chloasma, rash, excessive sweating, dry skin, scleroderma, erythema multiforme, and erythema nodosum.

X Chromosome, Mosaicism, and Scleroderma

Characterization of the HLA-DRß1 third hypervariable region (3rd HVR) amino acid sequence according to charge and parental inheritance in systemic sclerosis (SSc). SSc patients differed from controls when DRB1 alleles were categorized according to 3rd HVR sequences. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther.

X chromosome gene methylation in peripheral lymphocytes from monozygotic twins discordant for scleroderma. X chromosome genes with different methylation profiles in monozygotic twin pairs may constitute candidates for SSc susceptibility. Clin Exp Immunol.

Go to Causes of Scleroderma: Interleukins

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