Interleukins are a vital part of the pathway that regulates inflammation in the body. There are many different types of interleukins.
Interleukins play a key role in the development or progression of inflammatory conditions.
Inflammation and Interleukins. Inflammation (Latin, inflammatio, to set on fire) is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli as well as initiate the healing process for the tissue. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Wikipedia.
Y-27632, a Rho–associated protein kinase inhibitor, inhibits systemic lupus erythematosus. The findings showed that the inhibition of rho-associated, coiled–coil–containing protein kinase 1(ROCK) was beneficial for the prevention of systemic lupus erythematosus, which possibly by suppressing NF-κB activation. PubMed, Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Apr;88:359-366. (Also see Research on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
Malignancies rare following anti-TNF-a therapy; most patients discontinue biologics. A small number of patients developed a malignancy while receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment for an autoimmune disease, and most who did discontinued treatment with biologic agents. Healio Rheumatology, 07/30/2015. (Also see Biologic Agents)
Is Osteopontin (OPN) Involved in Cutaneous Fibroblast Activation? Its Hypothetical Role in Scleroderma Pathogenesis. OPN levels increase simultaneously with the increasing of alpha smooth muscle actin levels, therefore it is reasonable to hypothesize that OPN interferes in the pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis in the early stage of fibroblast differentiation process. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 01/29/2014.
The combination of IL-6 and its soluble receptor is associated with the response of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to tocilizumab. RA patients could be easily stratified prior to therapeutic intervention with two molecules related to the pathway blocked by tocilizumab. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 11/03/2017. (Also see Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis)
The role and therapeutic targeting of IL-6 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The prospects for future applications, new therapeutic strategies of IL-6 targeting therapy and relevant issues with regard to the clinical management of IL-6 blockade in RA are discussed. PubMed, Expert Rev Clin Immunol, 2017 Jun;13(6):535-551. (Also see Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Scleroderma (SSc) peripheral B lymphocytes secrete interleukin-6 and TGF–ß and activate fibroblasts. Peripheral B lymphocytes from SSc patients secreted IL-6 and TGF–ß, and activated fibroblasts in vitro. PubMed, Arthritis Rheumatol, 12/19/2016. (Also see Fibroblasts)
Mechanistic insight into the norepinephrine (NE)–induced fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). These results suggest that cold exposure and/or emotional stress–induced NE might contribute to the skin fibrosis via potentiation of IL-6 production from fibroblasts in SSc. PMC, Sci Rep, 2016; 6: 34012.(Also see Fibroblasts)
IL-8 and IL-6 primarily mediate the inflammatory response in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. These findings indicate that IL-6 and IL-8 are two of the most constant inflammatory mediators in FM and that their levels correlate significantly with the severity of symptoms. PubMed, J Neuroimmunol, 2016 Jan 15;290:22-5.
Interleukin-6 promoter haplotypes are associated with etanercept response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A genetically determined IL-6-dominated RA responds less well to anti-tumor necrosis factorore and work has to be done to provide reliable information regarding the functional aspects of these genetic polymorphisms. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 11/03/2015.
Association of elevated α–defensin levels with interstitial pneumonia in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc–ILD). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of defensins and IL-8 were higher in SSc–ILD than in healthy controls, and are associated with various clinical disease parameters. PubMed, Respir Res, 2015 Dec 10;16:148.
Interleukin-10 gene promoter and Nuclear factor-kB (NFKB)1 promoter insertion/deletion polymorphisms in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The association of the high-producing phenotype (GCC(+) /GCC(+) ) with increased risk for SSc was confirmed, but found no correlation with NFKB polymorphisms. PubMed, Scand J Immunol.
Influence of tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) susceptibility: a new locus in the IL-12 pathway. The association of TYK2 with SSc and reinforcing the relevance of the IL-12 pathway in SSc pathophysiology is reported for the first time. PubMed, Ann Rheum Dis, 09/02/2015.
Association of interleukin 13 gene polymorphisms and plasma IL 13 level with risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The concentration of IL-13 was significantly elevated in rs20541 CT/TT genotypes compared with CC genotype which suggests that rs20541 CT/TT genotypes may be a risk factor for SLE. PubMed, Cytokine, 10/07/2017. (Also see Causes of Lupus)
Transforming growth factor-ß increases interleukin-13 synthesis via GATA-3 transcription factor in T-lymphocytes from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). These results demonstrate that TGF-ß upregulates IL-13 synthesis through GATA-3 expression in the T lymphocytes of patients with SSc, confirming that the GATA-3 transcription factor can be regarded as a novel therapeutic target in patients with SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2015 Jul 31;17:196. (Also see Molecular Defect)
Role of interleukin-13 in fibrosis, particularly systemic sclerosis. This review examines the role of IL-13 in driving fibrosis with a particular emphasis on systemic sclerosis as a prototypical fibrotic disease. PubMed, Biofactors.
Serum 25–OH vitamin D level in treatment–naïve systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients: Relation to disease activity, IL-23 and IL-17. Hypovitaminosis D contributes to ANA antibody production and is associated with high serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 and may trigger the inflammatory process in SLE. Lupus, 12/07/2016. (Also see Research on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
Serum level of interleukin-17A in patients with alopecia areata (AA) and its relationship to age. It is possible that IL-17A plays a role in the pathogenesis of AA. Serum IL-17A may be influenced by patient age and age of onset of AA but does not seem to influence disease severity. PubMed, Int J Dermatol. 10/16/2015. (Also see Alopecia)
The role of the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 in Rheumatoid Arthritis pathogenesis and developments in cytokine immunotherapy. This review clarifies the role of Th17 cells and its cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA, and provides an overview of the clinical trials using immunotherapy to target this particular T helper subset or the two main effector cytokines by which the Th17 cells exert their function, IL-17 and IL-22. PubMed, Cytokine, 2015 Jul;74(1):101-7. (Also see Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Interleukin (IL)-17A promotes functional activation of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patient-derived dermal vascular smooth muscle cells by extracellular regulated protein kinases signaling pathway. IL-17A-derived from patients with SSc might be promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of SSc-related vasculopathy. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2014 Dec 31;16(6):4223.
Interleukin-17 and interleukin-23: importance in the pathogenesis of lung impairment in patients with systemic sclerosis(SSc). While the relationship between Th17-associated cytokines and interstitial lung disease-SSc needs to be verified, the changes in concentrations of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 support the hypothesis that these cytokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of SSc. PubMed, Int J Rheum Dis, 2014 Jul;17(6):664-70.
Interleukin-20 is triggered by toll–like receptor ligands (TLR) and associates with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our data showed that IL-20 is independently associated with RA disease activity and may be triggered by TLR ligands at local sites of inflammation. PubMed, Cytokine, 2017 Sep;97:187-192. (Also see Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Decreased Interleukin-20 Expression in Scleroderma (SSc) Skin Contributes to Cutaneous Fibrosis. IL-20 reduces basal collagen transcription via Fli-1 induction, while down-regulation of Smad3 and endoglin may cancel the effect of transforming growth factor ß in SSc fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheumatol, 2014 Jun; 66(6): 1636-1647.
Autoantibodies (AAbs) against interleukin-21 correlate with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The levels of AAbs against IL-21 correlate with disease activity, which suggests that anti–IL-21 AAbs may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 10/10/2017. (Also see Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis)
IL-22 capacitates dermal fibroblast responses to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in scleroderma. IL-22 capacitates fibroblast responses to TNF and promotes a proinflammatory fibroblast phenotype by favouring TNF-induced keratinocyte activation. PubMed, Ann Rheum Dis, 10/09/2015.
Pivotal Roles of T-Helper 17-Related Cytokines, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in Inflammatory Diseases. Although some conflicting findings still need to be resolved, targeting Th17 cells and their related cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 may be an effective therapeutic approach for chronic inflammation in the future. Clinical and Developmental Immunology.
IL-25 blockade inhibits metastasis in breast cancer. Inhibition of IL-25 resulted in decreased type 2 T cells and macrophages in the primary tumor microenvironments, both reported to enhance breast tumor invasion and subsequent metastasis to the lung. PubMed, Protein Cell, 2017 Mar;8(3):191-201. (Also see Cancer)
IL-26 Plays Antimicrobial Role in Immune Response. Interleukin 17-producing helper T cells (Th17 cells) secrete copious amounts of interleukin 26 (IL-26) in patients with such autoimmune diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. The Rheumatologist, 09/28/2015.
The IL-33 gene is related to increased susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study was to detect the potential association of IL-33 gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility of SSc. Springer Link 01/07/2016.
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