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Molecular Defect

Mitochondrial Antibodies TGF Dysregulations

Mitochondrial Antibodies

Mitochondrial Antibodies occur in about 95% of people who have primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but only 3% of people who have PBC have systemic scleroderma. (Also see What is Scleroderma? and Types of Scleroderma)

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation. Mitochondrial diseases result from failures of the mitochondria, specialized compartments present in every cell of the body except red blood cells. Mitochondria are responsible for creating more than 90% of the energy needed by the body to sustain life and support growth. When they fail, less and less energy is generated within the cell. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation.

Anti-mitochondrial Antibodies in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM). The prevalence of AMAs in 270 DCM patients was only 1.1%, and these patients suffered from respiratory failure. PubMed, Intern Med, 2021;60(2):201-208.

TGF Dysregulations

Some researchers suspect that a molecular defect in TGFbeta/SMAD may play a role in the development of scleroderma fibrosis.

Transforming growth factor-ß plasma levels and its role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our preliminary results support the hypothesis that TGF-ß3 levels can be a marker disease severity ALS. PubMed, Med Hypotheses, 2020 Feb 14;139:109632.

Evolving insights into the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis. This article looks to identify clinical applications where this new molecular knowledge may allow for targeted treatment and personalized medicine approaches. PubMed, Transl Res, 2019 Jul;209:77-89. (Also see Skin Fibrosis)

Transforming growth factor-ß increases interleukin-13 synthesis via GATA-3 transcription factor in T-lymphocytes from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). These results demonstrate that TGF-ß upregulates IL-13 synthesis through GATA-3 expression in the T lymphocytes of patients with SSc, confirming that the GATA-3 transcription factor can be regarded as a novel therapeutic target in patients with SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther. (Also see Interleukins)

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