Connective Tissue Disease (CTD)

Author: Shelley Ensz. Scleroderma is highly variable. See Types of Scleroderma. Read Disclaimer


Connective tissue diseases are complex illnesses that can affect any part of the body, such as dermatomyositis/polymyositis, lupus, mixed connective tissue disease, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and Sjogren's.

Connective Tissue Disease. A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a primary target of pathology.

Connective Tissue Disease: Current Concepts. Many of these updates promise to improve clinical care of patients who suffer from dermatologic involvement of these diseases and are the result of research performed by dermatologists. PubMed, Dermatol Clin, 2019 Jan;37(1):37-48.

Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) in connective tissue diseases (CTD): an update. The role of anticoagulation in CTD–PAH is associated with a high risk–benefit ratio with the caveat of its potential role in those with severe disease. PubMed, Int J Rheum Dis, 2017 Jan;20(1):5-24.

Imaging of Pulmonary Manifestations of Connective Tissue Diseases (CTD). The most common histopathologic patterns of CTD–related interstitial lung disease are nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. PubMed, Radiol Clin North Am, 2016 Nov;54(6):1015-1031.


Biomarkers in connective tissue diseases. This review describes select current biomarkers that aid in the diagnosis and treatment of several major systemic autoimmune connective tissue disorders and also newly proposed biomarkers. PubMed, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2017 Dec;140(6):1473-1483.


A simplified lung ultrasound (LUS) for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in connective tissue disease: a meta–analysis. We found a modified and simplified method of LUS, by scanning 14 lung intercostal spaces in a short time, which had a very high sensitivity and specificity. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2019 Apr 11;21(1):93. (Also see Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosis)


Mortality and causes of death across the systemic connective tissue diseases (CTDs) and the primary systemic vasculitides (PSVs). We observed premature deaths across the spectrum of CTDs and PSVs, with highest standard mortality ratios in diffuse scleroderma and anti–synthetase syndrome. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 10/03/2018. (Also see Vasculitis)

Acute Respiratory Events in Connective Tissue Disorders (CTDs). In CTDs the lungs significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality, since they constitute a common site of disease involvement. PubMed, Respiration, 03/04/2016.

Investigation of Lung Involvement in Connective Tissue Disorders (CTD). The investigation of lung involvement in CTDs requires adequate skills in the ambit of a multidisciplinary approach and an extended spectrum of diagnostic tools. PubMed, Respiration, 06/26/2015. (Also see Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosis)

Clinical characteristics and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and connective tissue disease-associated usual interstitial pneumonia (CTD-UIP). Although the survival of CTD-UIP patients was similar compared with that of IPF/UIP patients, it appears that Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease influences the survival rate of CTD-UIP patients. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 04/03/2015. (Also see Pulmonary Fibrosis Prognosis)

Histopathology of Lung Disease in the Connective Tissue Diseases (CTD). This article will cover the pulmonary pathologies seen in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, myositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, and mixed CTD. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 03/06/2015. (Also see Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosis)


Connective tissue disease (CTD) increases risk for cardiovascular problems. The findings show that CTD is associated with higher prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and these insights could be used to improve how patients with a wide range of connective tissue diseases are evaluated. University of Chicago Medical Center, 02/05/2016.

How are cancer and connective tissue diseases (CTDs) related to sarcoidosis? The association between sarcoidosis and both cancer and CTDs may yield important insights into the immunopathogenesis of all three diseases. PubMed, Curr Opin Pulm Med. (Also see Sarcoidosis and Cancer)


Determining the necessity for right heart catheterization (RHC) in pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) assessed by echocardiography. These findings demonstrate the necessity for RHC and differences in prognosis of PH in CTD. Wiley Online Library, 10/07/2015. (Also see Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis)

Go to Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

Many thanks to our recent donors, Network for Good. See ISN News for more donors. Click Here to Donate.


TOLL FREE HOTLINE, U.S. and Canada: 1-800-564-7099
Ask for our Free Info Packet by email or postal mail!

SCLERO.ORG is the world's leading nonprofit for trustworthy research, support, education and awareness for scleroderma and related illnesses.

We are a service of the nonprofit International Scleroderma Network (ISN), which is a 501(c)(3) U.S.-based public charitable foundation, established in 2002. Meet Our Team, or Volunteer. Donations may also be mailed to:

International Scleroderma Network (ISN)
7455 France Ave So #266
Edina, MN 55435-4702 USA
Email [email protected] to request our Welcome email, report bad links, or update page content. Disclaimer. Privacy Policy.

The most important thing in the world to know about scleroderma is!