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Connective Tissue Disease (CTD)

Author: Shelley Ensz. Scleroderma is highly variable. See Types of Scleroderma. Read Disclaimer
Overview
Biomarkers
Diagnosis
Symptoms
Overlaps
Research

Overview

Connective tissue diseases are complex illnesses that can affect any part of the body, such as dermatomyositis/polymyositis, lupus, mixed connective tissue disease, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and Sjogren's.

Connective Tissue Disease. A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a primary target of pathology. MedicineNet.com

Connective Tissue Disease: Current Concepts. Many of these updates promise to improve clinical care of patients who suffer from dermatologic involvement of these diseases and are the result of research performed by dermatologists. PubMed, Dermatol Clin, 2019 Jan;37(1):37-48.

Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) in connective tissue diseases (CTD): an update. The role of anticoagulation in CTD–PAH is associated with a high risk–benefit ratio with the caveat of its potential role in those with severe disease. PubMed, Int J Rheum Dis, 2017 Jan;20(1):5-24.

Imaging of Pulmonary Manifestations of Connective Tissue Diseases (CTD). The most common histopathologic patterns of CTD–related interstitial lung disease are nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. PubMed, Radiol Clin North Am, 2016 Nov;54(6):1015-1031.

Biomarkers

Biomarkers in connective tissue diseases. This review describes select current biomarkers that aid in the diagnosis and treatment of several major systemic autoimmune connective tissue disorders and also newly proposed biomarkers. PubMed, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2017 Dec;140(6):1473-1483.

Diagnosis

A simplified lung ultrasound (LUS) for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in connective tissue disease: a meta–analysis. We found a modified and simplified method of LUS, by scanning 14 lung intercostal spaces in a short time, which had a very high sensitivity and specificity. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2019 Apr 11;21(1):93. (Also see Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosis)

Symptoms

Histology of Pulmonary and Bronchiolar Disorders in Connective Tissue Diseases (CTD). In this review we describe the patterns of lung disease associated with common CTDs, lung disease in pediatric CTD patients, and newly recognized conditions. PubMed, Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Apr;40(2):147-158. (Also see Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosis)

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD): pilot study on predictors of lung involvement. The association of easily elicited historical and clinical features of MCTD with subtle, but worrisome, pulmonary pathology carries the promise of sensitising the unsuspecting clinician about the entity of ILD in MCTD. PubMed, Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2018 Jul-Aug;36(4):648-651. (Also see Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosis)

Mortality and causes of death across the systemic connective tissue diseases (CTDs) and the primary systemic vasculitides (PSVs). We observed premature deaths across the spectrum of CTDs and PSVs, with highest standard mortality ratios in diffuse scleroderma and anti–synthetase syndrome. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 10/03/2018. (Also see Vasculitis)

Acute Respiratory Events in Connective Tissue Disorders (CTDs). In CTDs the lungs significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality, since they constitute a common site of disease involvement. PubMed, Respiration, 03/04/2016.

Overlaps

Connective tissue disease (CTD) increases risk for cardiovascular problems. The findings show that CTD is associated with higher prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and these insights could be used to improve how patients with a wide range of connective tissue diseases are evaluated. University of Chicago Medical Center, 02/05/2016.

How are cancer and connective tissue diseases (CTDs) related to sarcoidosis? The association between sarcoidosis and both cancer and CTDs may yield important insights into the immunopathogenesis of all three diseases. PubMed, Curr Opin Pulm Med. (Also see Sarcoidosis and Cancer)

Research

Determining the necessity for right heart catheterization (RHC) in pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) assessed by echocardiography. These findings demonstrate the necessity for RHC and differences in prognosis of PH in CTD. PubMed, Int J Rheum Dis, 2016 Jan;19(1):65-73. (Also see Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis)

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